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Welsh First Name Meanings Monday, Jun 1 2009 

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Welsh First Name Meanings

Aberthol – “sacrifice”.
Accalon – a champion from Gaul and the lover of Morgan le Fay in the Arthurian sagas. They plotted to steal Excalibur, but Merlin helped Arthur to beat Accalon in battle.
Adda – Welsh version of Adam, “of the red earth”.
Addolgar – “devout”.
Adwr – “coward”.
Aedd – from the Irish aedh “fire”; also a name of a king of Ireland. Shortened form of Aeddan.
Aeddan – Welsh form of Aidan.
Aglovale – son of King Pellinore, who Lancelot accidentally killed when Lancelot rescued Guinevere.
Alawn – “harmony”.
Albanwr – “one from Scotland”.
Alun – Welsh; possibly cognate of Alan. Also a river name in Wales spelled Alyn.
Alwyn – Welsh version of Alvin, “friend of all”; also the name of a river in Wales.
Amaethon – name of the son of the goddess Donn in Welsh legends.
Amerawdwr – from a word meaning “emperor”.
Amhar – name of a son of Arthur in obscure Welsh legends.
Amlawdd – name of the father of Goleuddydd in Welsh tales.
Amren – name of the son od Bedwyr in Welsh Arthurian sagas.
Amynedd – “patient”. Amyneddgar.
Andras – Welsh form of Andrew.
Andreas – Welsh form of Andrew.
Aneirin – “honorable” or “golden”; of uncertain original derivation. Original form Neirin, with the “A” added in the 13th C; may be derived from Irish Gaelic nári “noble, modest”. The name also appears in Welsh mythology. Aneurin (modern form), pet form Nye.
Anfri – “disgrace”.
Angawdd – name of the son of Caw in legends.
Angor – form the Welsh word for “anchor”.
Anir – listed as a son of King Arthur in the sagas; vaguely hinted in the stories that he was killed by Arthur and buried in Wales at Licat Amir. Amr.
Anwar – “wild”.
Anwas – name of the father of Twrch in ancient legends.
Anwell – from the word for “beloved”. Anwil.
Anwir – “liar”.
Anynnawg – legendary name of the son of Menw.
Anyon – from the Welsh word for “anvil”.
Ap- – one of the prefixes used to denote “son of”, as is “O” in Ireland and “Mac” in Ireland and Scotland.
Arawn – (AR-awn) in mythology, the god of Annwn (an-OON), the Underworld, but not associated with terror or eternal punishment. It later became the underground kingdom of the dead.
Ardwyad – “protector”.
Arglwydd – from the word meaning “lord”.
Arian – “silver”; masculine version of Arianrhod.
Arianwyn – (ah-ree-AHN-win) from Welsh arian “silver” + gwyn “shining, holy”.
Arthur – (AHR-thir) from Celtic artos “bear”, poss. from Latin name Artorius. Name of the legendary king and culture hero of the Welsh, Cornish, and Bretons. Arthwr, Arthvawr.
Arvel – “wept over”.
Avagdu – “utter darkness”; son of the goddess Cerridwen and god Tegid Foel. Afagddu, Morfran (great crow).
Avaon – in Welsh tradition, the name of Taliesin’s son.
Awstin – from the Welsh word for “august”; also a version of Austin, a contracted form of the Latin Augustinus.

Baddon – “one from Baddon”.
Barri – (BAHR-ee) prob. from Welsh bar “mound, summit, dune”; perhaps from the word for “boar”. Island of Barry off Glamorgan coast is named for the 6th C. hermit, St. Barri, who took refuge there. The island became a popluar pilgrimage destination after his death.
Barris – “son of Harry”. Barrys.
Baudwin – one of the later Knights of the Round Table, he came from Brittany ans was a very skilled surgeon. He survived the battle of Camlan, and became a hermit.
Beda – Welsh version of Bede, a famous monk and historian.
Bedwyr – name of one of King Arthur’s companions to whom he sometimes entrusted Excalibur.
Bedyw – name of the son of Seithved in legends.
Beli – name of an Irish sun god, also known in Wales. In later tales, Beli was the brother-in-law of the Virgin Mary. The original Beli was connected closely with the druids and their rituals. Beltane is his festival, May 1. Beli Mawr, Belenus, Belinus.
Bellieus – a Knight of the Round Table who fought Lancelot over an incident with his wife.
Benedigeidfram – “blessed”; applied to the god Bran. A giant in Welsh mythology, Bran the Blessed was brother to the goddess Branwen.
Bercelak – known as the Green Knight in Arthurian stories.
Berth – name of the son of Cadwy in legends.
Berwyn – the son of Kerenhyr in ancient tales.
Beven – “son of Evan” or “youthful”.
Blair – “place”. Blayre, Blaire.
Blaise – Merlin’s mysterious teacher, he lived in Northumberland.
Blathaon – legendary name of the son of Mwrheth.
Bleddyn – (BLETH-in) from Welsh blaidd “wolf” + dim. suffix -yn. Related Welsh wolf names: Bledri (BLED-ree): blaidd + rhi “king”. The slang name Wolf was applied to both warriors and outlaws in Wales.
Bledri – (BLED-ree) from Welsh blaidd “wolf” + rhi “king” = “leader of the warriors or outlaws”.
Bleidd – (BLAYTH) “wolf”.
Bleiddian (BLATH-yahn): blaidd “wolf” + -ian, verbal ending, “one who goes wolfing, i.e. looting, raiding”.
Bogart – “bof” or “marshland”; a name in both Ireland and Wales.
Bors – son of the king of Benoic and cousin to Lancelot. He was one of the best Knights of the Round Table along with Galahad and Perceval.
Bowen – “son of Owen”. Bowie, Bowe.
Brac – “free”.
Brad – from the word for “treason”.
Bradwen – name of the son of Moren in ancient legends.
Bradwr – “traitor”; variant of Brad.
Braen – “corrupt”.
Bran – (BRAN) from Welsh for “raven” or “crow”. Famous bearer-Bran Bendigeidfran (Bran the Blessed) in the Second Branch of the Mabinogi.*
Brastias – originally a knight in Cornwall, he was one of Arthur’s captains, and later Warden of the North.
Brathach – name of the son of Gwawrddur in old tales.
Brian – legendary name of the son of Turenn.
Brice – “alert”.
Broderick – “son of the famous ruler”. The name ap-Roderick appears often, signifying “son of Roderick”.
Bryn – (BRIN) from Welsh for “hill”. Popular for boys. Brynn, Brynley, Brinley (BRIN-lee).
Brys – legendary name of the son of Brysthach.
Bwlch – name of the son of Cleddyv Kyvwlch in old tales.

Cadarn – “strong”.
Caddoc – “battle-sharp” or “eager for war”.
Cadell – from a word meaning “spirit of the battle” or “battler”.
Cadellin – name of the son of Gweir in legends.
Cadeyrn – (KAHD-ayrn) from Welsh cad “battle” + teyrn “prince”.
Cadfael – (KAHD-file or KAHD-vil) either from words cad “battle” + ban “summit”, or cad + mael “prince”. Cadfan, Cadoc.
Cadfan – (KAHD-vahn) from Welsh cad “battle” + ban “summit”. 6th C. saint associated with a healing well.
Cadman – “warrior”. Cadmon.
Cadoc – (KAHD-ok) from Welsh cad “battle”. Orig. a nickname for Cadfael. Cadoc was the name of one of the most important Welsh saints. St. Cadoc was carried on a cloud to Northern Italy, where he became a bishop and was martyred.
Cadwaladr – (kahd-WAHL-ah-der) from Welsh cad “battle” + gwalar “ruler, leader”. 7th C. saint and ruler of northern kingdom of Gwynedd.
Cadwallen – “battle dissolver”.
Cadwgawn – legendary name of the son of Iddon.
Cadwr – name of the son of Gwryon in old tales.
Cadyryeith – “well-spoken”.
Caer Llion – “one from Caerleon (Castle of the Lion)”.
Caerwyn – (KIR-win or KAYR-win) from Welsh caer “fort” + gwyn “shining, holy”.
Cai – (KAY) Usu. derived from Latin name Caius, poss. similar with Irish cai (coi) “path, way”; other sources say it means “rejoicer”. Cai was described as King Arthur’s closest companion. In the 10th C. poem, Pa gur yw y porthawr, Cai killed nine witches and rid the island of Anglesey of a fierce monster call the Palug Cat. Cei, Caius, Caw.
Cain – “clear water”.
Cairn – the Welsh word for a pile of stones used as a landmark. Carne.
Calcas – name of the son of Caw in legends.
Calder – “brook or stream”.
Caledvwich – the name of Excalibur in Welsh legends.
Cant – “white”.
Caradawg – name of Eudav’s father in old tales.
Caradoc – “beloved”. Craddock, Cradoc.
Carey – “from the castle”. Cary, Caerau.
Carnedyr – legendary name of the son of Govynyon.
Cas – name of the son of Seidi in legends.
Casnar – name of a nobleman in old tales.
Casswallawn – according to legends, the name of the son of Beli.
Caw – a name from old legends.
Cedric – “bountiful”.
Ceithin – name of the uncle of Lugh in old tales.
Celyn – (KEL-in) Welsh word for “holly”. Celyn ap Caw was a member of Arthur’s court in the medievel tale Kulhwch and Olwen.
Cerdic – “beloved”. Ceredig.
Ceri – (KER-ee) Name of two rivers, one in Dyfed and on in Glamorgan. May come from Welsh caru “to love”; male or female name.
Cerwyn – (KER-win) possibly means “black” or “white”.
Cian – (KEE-an) possibly from Welsh ci (cwn) “hound, wolf”, or from Old Irish cian “ancient, enduring”. Cian is known as on of the five Cynfeirdd, founding poets of Welsh tradition, although none of his poems have survived.
Clud – “lame”.
Clust – name of the son of Clustveinydd in legends.
Clyde – “loud voiced”, “heard from afar”, or “warm”. Clywd.
Cnychwr – name of the son of Nes in old tales.
Coed – “dwells in the woods”.
Colgrevance – a Knight of the Round Table who was slain when the Knights tried to capture Lancelot while he was in Guinevere’s chamber.
Collen – (KOLH-en) Welsh word for “hazel tree”. Name of a 6th C. saint.
Colwyn – name of a Welsh river.
Conwy – (CON-oo-ee) personal name from the river in northern Wales, from the Irish Gaelic name Connmhaighe, “hound of the plain”.
Corryn – “spider”.
Cradelmass – a king of north Wales whom Arthur defeated at tge start if his reign.
Crist – from the word “Christian”.
Cubert – lengendary name of the son of Daere.
Culhwch – (COOL-oo) son of Kilydd in old tales.
Culvanawd – name of the son of Gwryon in old tales.
Custenhin – legendary name of Erbin’s father.
Cymry – (KIM-ree) “from Wales”; the Welsh people’s name for themselves.
Cynan – (KUHN-ahn) from Celtic kuno “great, high”. Popular in Medieval Wales.
Cynbal – “warrior chief”. Cynbal.
Cystennin – from the word “constant”.

Dafydd – (DAH-vith) “dearly beloved”; Welsh form of David. St. David is patron saint of Wales. Nicknames: Dafi (DAH-vee); Dai (DII); Deian (DAY-an); Deio (DAY-oh); Dewi (DE-wee).
Dagonet – name of King Arthur’s jester, who was made a knight and excelled in bravery during many tournaments.
Dalldav – son of Cunyn Cov in old legends.
Daned – son of Oth in old tales.
Davis – “son of David”; variant of Dafydd.
Deiniol – (DAYN-yol) Welsh form of Daniel. St. Deiniol was active in late 6th C. in N. Wales.
Deverell – “from the riverbank”.
Dewey – “beloved”; form of David
Digon – son of Alar in old tales.
Dillan – “faithful”; form of Dillon.
Dillus – legendary name of the Eurei’s son.
Dilwyn – “shady place”. Dillwyn.
Dinadan – a Knight of the Round Table who had a sense of humor, and loved to play jokes on the other Knights. He was later killed by Mordred.
Dirmyg – legendary name of on of Caw’s sons.
Drem – “sight”.
Dremidydd – the father of Drem in old tales.
Drew – “wise”. Dru, Dryw.
Druce – “son of Dryw”. Drywsone.
Drudwas – name of Tryffin’s son in old tales.
Drwst – obscure name from Welsh tales.
Drych – legendary name of the son of Kibddar.
Drystan – Welsh version of Tristan, “full of sorrow”.
Duach – name of Gwawrddur’s son in old legends.
Dylan – (DIL-un or DUHL-an) Welsh word for “ocean, sea, the deep”. In Mabinogi, Dylan eil Ton (Sea Like a Wave) was a son of Arianrhod. Welsh-born 20th C. poet Dylan Thomas was one of the finest English language poets. Dillan, Dillon.
Dyvynarth – legendary name of the son of Gwrgwst.
Dyvyr – name of Alun’s son in ancient stories.
Dywel – legendary name of the son of Erbin.

Earwine – “white river”. Erwyn.
Ector – Ector of the Forest Sauvage was Arthur’s foster father in the Arthurian sagas.
Edern – name of the son of Nudd in legend.
Edmyg – “honor”.
Ehangwen – a name from old legends.
Eiddoel – name of Ner’s son in old tales.
Eiddyl – name of unknown meaning in legends.
Eiladar – legendary name of Penn Llarcan’s son.
Einion – “anvil”. Einian.
Eiryn – name of Peibyn’s son in old stories.
Eivyonydd – a name out of old tales.
Elis – (EL-is) Welsh form of Elijah, from Greek Elias. Ellis (ELHis).
Elphin – name of the son of Gwyddno in old legends; in Taliesin stories, he rescued the infant Gwion Bach, later named Taliesin, from a salmon weir.
Emhyr – “ruler”. Emyr.
Emlyn – (EM-lin) from Latin aemilianus “flattering, charming”; some sources say “waterfall”.
Emrys – (EM-rees) Welsh form of English Ambrosius, from Greek Ambrosios “immortal”; Emryus was an epithet of the magician and poet Myrddin (Merlin).
Ennissyen – a giant Welshman related to Bran the Blessed and started the war with the Irish, which led to the death of Branwen and her son.
Eoin – “young warrior”; form of Evan.
Erbin – legendary name of Custinhin’s son.
Ergyryad – name of one of Caw’s sons in old tales.
Ermid – name of the son od Erbin in legends.
Eryi – “from Snowdon”.
Eudav – son of Caradawg in ancient stories.
Eurosswydd – name in old Welsh tales.
Eus – name of Erim’s son in legends.
Evan – (EV-ahn) Welsh form of John. Ioan (YOH-ahn); Ianto (YAHN-toh); Iwan (YEW-ahn); Eoin, Ieuan (YAY-ahn).
Evnissyen – (ev-NESS-yen) “lover of strife”. Half-brother of god Bran in ancient legends.
Evrawg – “from York”.
Evrei – name out of old stories.

Fercos – name of Poch’s son in old legends.
Fflam – legedary name of the son of Nwyvre.
Fflergant – legendary naem of one of Brittany’s kings.
Fflewdwr – name of the son of Naw in old stories.
Ffodor – son of Ervyll in old tales.
Ffowc – “of all the people”.
Ffransis – (FRAWN-sis) Welsh form of Francis. Nickname Frank is Ffranc in Welsh.
Fychan – “small”.
Fyrsil – version of Virgil, “bears the staff”. Fferyll.

Galahad – illegitimate son of Lancelot and Elaine; a pure knight who surpassed his father’s deeds of valor and died when he saw the Holy Grail.
Galehodin – Lancelot’s brother; he became the Duke of Saintongue.
Gamon – a name from old stories.
Gandwy – a name in ancient legends.
Garanhon – legendary name of Glythvyr’s son.
Gareth – (GAHR-eth) from Welsh gwaraidd “civilized, gentle”; other sources have the meaning “powerful with the spear” from an Anglo-Saxon word. Tennyson used the name for a knight of King Arthur’s in his Idylls of the King.
Garnock – “dwells by the alder tree river”.
Garselid – a name from old legends.
Garwyli – name of Gwyddawg Gwyr’s son in old legends.
Garym – a name from old stories.
Gavin – “white hawk” or “hawk of the battle”.
Gawain – a Knight of the Round Table, and a son of Lot and Morgause of Orkney. He was also known as Gwalchmai, “Hawk of May”.
Geraint – (GER-iint) from Celtic Gerontios similar to Greek gerontius “old”. Geraint mab Erbin was hero of a medieval Welsh romance. A knight of the Round Table, renowned for his prowess in tournaments, the way he won his wife Enid. Also said to have beeen the king of Cornwall. A Welsh elegy to Geraint mab Erbin dates c. 900, and also mentioned as a warrior in the Gododdin.
Gerallt – (GER-alht) Welsh form of Gerald.
Gerwin – “fair love”.
Gethin – (GETH-in) from Welsh cethin “dark, dusky”. Geth.
Gilbert – legendary name of the son of Cadgyffro.
Gildas – (GIL-dahs) 6th C. monk and saint Gildas was the author of De excidio Britanniae (The Destruction of Britain), in which he blamed his fellow Welsh for allowing Anglo-Saxons to overrun Britain. St. Gildas venerated in Brittany as St. Gweltas and credited there for performing numerous miracles.
Gilvaethwy – name of one of the goddess Donn’s sons. He lusted after his Uncle Math’s virgin foot-holder and caused a war between Gwynedd and Dyfed in an attempt to get her. His punishment was to undergo shapeshifts into various animals, and to bear young.
Gleis – legendary name of Merin’s son.
Glendower – “one ofr Glyndwer”. Glyndwer.
Glew – name of Ysgawd’s sin in old stories.
Glewlwyd – Arthur’s gatekeeper in the Culhwch and Olwen myth.
Glinyeu – name of Taran’s son in legends.
Glyn – (GLIN) “one who lives in the glen or valley”; from Welsh glyn “valley”.
Glythvyr – a name in ancient tales.
Gobrwy – name of Echel Pierced Thighs in old stories.
Gofannon – on of the goddess Donn’s sons. He was a god of blacksmiths and the equal of the Irish Goibniu.
Gogyvwlch – a legendary name of unknown meaning.
Goreu – legendary name of one of the sons of Custinhin (or Custennin) and an unnamed woman who was Igraine’s sister.
Gorlois – the Duke of Cornwall and Igerna’s husband, the woman whom Uther Pendragon coveted. Father of Morgan, Morgause, and Elaine.
Gormant – name of Rica’s son in old tales.
Goronwy – (gohr-ON-wee) from Welsh gwr “man”. Goronwy Owen (1723-1769) was an 18th C. Welsh language renaissance poet; emigrated to the colonies and died in Virginia. Also Goronw (gohr-ON-oo); Gronw (GROHN-oo).
Gorsedd – “from the mound”.
Govan – name of one of Caw’s sons in old legends.
Govannon – son of the goddess Donn in old legends; he was a smith-god.
Govynyon – a name from old legends.
Gowerr – “pure”.
Gowther – a hero in Arturian tales who tames his savage disposition by penances.
Granwen – name of one of Llyr’s sons in legends.
Greid – legendary name of Eri’s son.
Greidyawl – obscure name from old tales.
Griffin – (GRIFF-in) from the mythological beast. From Welsh cryf “strong” + udd “lord”. Several medieval rulers bore Gruffudd, a variant.
Griffith – (GRIF-ith) from Welsh cryf “strong” + udd “lord”; possibly also “red-haired”. Gruffudd, Gruffydd.
Griflet – name of one of the first Knights; King Arthur accepted him even though he was very young.
Gromer – a powerful shapeshifter and magician who captured Arthur in the story of Gawain and Dame Ragnell.
Gronw Pebr – lover of Blodeuwedd, and rival of Llew.
Gruddyeu – name of Muryel’s son in legends.
Gruffen – “fierce lord”. Gruffyn.
Guinglain – only legitimate son of Gawain and Lady Ragnall; a Knight of the Round Table, and killed by Lancelot.
Gusg – legendary name of Achen’s son.
Gwalchmei – “Hawk of May” or “hawk of the battle”. Legendary name of Gwyar’s son. Gavan, Gaven, Gavin.
Gwalhaved – name of one of Gwyar’s sons in old legends.
Gwallawg – name of Llenawg’s son in old tales.
Gwallter – Welsh version of Walter, “strong fighter”.
Gwarthegydd – name of one of Caw’s sons in old legends.
Gwawl – legendary name of Clud’s son; at one time betrothed to the goddess Rhiannon before she married Pwyll.
Gwern – “old”. The name of Branwen’s son by Irish King Matholwch; the infant was thrown into a fire and killed by Branwen’s half-brother Ennissyen.
Gwevyl – name of Gwastad’s son in legends.
Gwilym – (GWIL-im) Welsh version of William.
Gwion Bach – original name of Taliesin.
Gwitart – name of Aedd’s son in ancient stories.
Gwrddywall – legendary name of Evrei’s son.
Gwres – name of Rheged’s son in old tales.
Gwyddawg – name of Menestyr’s son in old tales.
Gwyddno – (GWITH-noh) from Welsh gwyd “knowledge” + gno “fame”.
Gwydion – (GWID-yon) from Welsh gwyd “knowledge” + -on, divine ending. Gwydion ap Don was a powerful magician in the Mabinogi. In Welsh, Caer Gwydion (Gwydion’s Castle) is the Milky Way.
Gwydre – name of one of Arthur’s sons in old legends.
Gwyglet – name of a hero in the epic The Goddoddin; he fought and died in the battle of Catreath (Catterick).
Gwyn – (GWIN) from Welsh gwen, gwyn “white, shining, holy”. Gwyn ap Nudd was the leader of the Wild Hunt and the lord of lost souls.
Gwyneira – (gwin-AYR-ah) from Welsh gwyn “shining, holy” + eira “snow”.
Gwynn ap Nudd – began as a deity, Lord of the Underworld and leader of the Wild Hunt. He kidnapped Creiddylad, causing a battle with Gwythyr ap Greidawl, her betrothed. Later, he was known as King of the Fairies and the Plant Annwn, subterranean fairies. Medieval tales say the entrance to his kingdom is in Galstonbury Tor.
Gwyr – “from Gower”.
Gwythyr – son of Greidyawl in old legends; als othe name of the lord of the Upperworld.

Hafgan – (HAHV-gahn) from Welsh haf “summer” + can “song”; male or female name. Name of an Otherworld deity who annually fights Arawn for rulership of the Underworld.
Heddwyn – (HETH-win) from Welsh hedd “peace” + gwyn “shining, holy”. Hedd Wynn was the bardic name of Ellis Evans (1887-1917), a poet and soldier killed in Flanders during WWI; and posthumously won the chair at the 1917 Eisteddfod. His life has become a symbol of the futility of war.
Hefaidd Hen – name of Rhiannon’s fahter in ancient legends, he ruled part of the Underworld.
Heilyn – name of Gwynn’s son in old legends.
Hen Beddestyr – legendary name of Erim’s son.
Hen Was – “old servant”.
Hen Wyneb – “old face”.
Heulfryn – (HIIL-vrin) heul “sun” + bryn “hill”.
Heulyn – (HIIL-een) “ray of sunshine”.
Howell – “remarkable” or “attentive”; “alert one”. Howell.
Huw – (HYOO) Welsh version of Hugh, from Old German hugi “intelligence, spirit”. Hew, Hewe, Hu.
Hydd – “deer”.
Hywel – (HUH-wel) from Welsh hywel “eminent”. Hywel Dda (Hywell the Good) was a 10th C. king of Wales. Made the druids’ oral legal tradition into a written code of law. Anglicized Howell.

Iago – Welsh version of James, “god’s gift”.
Iau – Welsh version of Zeus.
Iddawg – name of Nynyo’s son in old legends.
Idris – “eager lord”. Idriss, Idriys.
Iestyn – Welsh version of Justing, “one who is just”.
Ieuan – (YAY-an) from Latin Johannes. Ieuan is the Welsh version of John, “god is gracious”. Ioan, Iwan.
Ifor – Welsh version of a Teutonic name meaning “archer”.
Inek – Welsh version of Irvin.
Iolo – (YOH-loh) Nickname for Iowerth. Iolo Morganwg (Iolo or Glamorgan) was the bardic name of Edward Williams (1747-1826), stonemason, poet, scholar, and initiator of the National Eisteddfod.
Iona – name of a French king in old legends; also the Celtic name for the Isle of Anglesey off the northern Wales coast.
Iowerth – (YOH-wayrth) from Norse ior “lord” + Welsh gwerth “value, worth”. Used as the Welsh version of Edward since the Middle Ages.
Irvin – “white river”. Irv, Inek, Irving.
Ithel – “generous lord”.
Iustig – name of one of Caw’s sons in old legends.

Jestin – Welsh version of Justin.
Jones – “son of John”. Joenns.

Kai – variant of Cei; possibly derived from a word meaning “fiery”, others believe it means “keeper of the keys”. Kay, Kei.
Kane – from a Welsh word for “beautiful”.
Keith – “wood-dweller” or “dwells in the woods”. Keath, Keithon.
Kelli – “from the wood”.
Kelyn – name of one of Caw’s sons in old tales.
Kenn – “clear water”.
Kent – “white”.
Kenyon – “from Ennion’s mound”.
Kevyn – “from the ridge”, or from Irish Gaelic Caoimhin, “gentle, lovable”.
Kian – possibly Welsh version of Irish Cian, “ancient”. Name of Lugh’s father in old legends.
Kilydd – legendary name of Kelyddon’s son.
Kim – “leader”.
Kynan – “chief”.
Kyndrwyn – legendary name of Ermid’s son.
Kynedyr – name of the son of Hetwn in legends.
Kynlas – name of Kynan’s son in old tales.
Kynon – name of Clydno’s son in ancient tales; possibly a variant of Kynan.
Kynwal – name of one of Caw’s sons.
Kynwyl – name of a very early Welsh saint.

Lancelot du Lac – son of King Ban of Benoic in France, Galahad’s father, Knight of the Round Table and an unbeatable warrior. His affair with Queen Guinevere caused the death of many knights and the destruction of King Arthur’s kingdom.
Lavaine – in old Arthurian legend, he was a young Knight and son of Sir Bernard of Astolat. He was knighted by Lancelot and became one of the greatest Knights of the Round Table.
Leodegrance – name in old tales given as the King of Cameliard, who was Guinevere’s father.
Lionel – a Knight of the Round Table, cousin to Lancelot, and brother to Bors.
Llacheu – name of one of Arthur’s illigitimate sons by Lysanor in ancient legends. Borre, Boare, Lohot.
Llara – from a word meaning “meek”.
Lleu – a Welsh sun god Llew Llaw Gyffes, son of Arianrhod and an unnamed father and raised by his uncle Gwydion.
Llevelys – legendary name of Beli’s son.
Lloyd – “one with gray hair”. Loy, Llwyd, Loyde.
Lludd – “from London” or from the god Llud Llaw Ereint (similary to Irish Nuada and Greek Neptune). Llundein.
Llwch Llawwyanawc – a warrior who went with Arthur to retreive the great cauldron when it was stolen and taken to Annwn.
Llwybyr – legendary name of one of Caw’s sons.
Llwyd – (LHOO-eed) from Welsh llwyd “grey, holy”. Lloyd.
Llwydeu – name of Nwython’s son in old stories.
Llwyr – legendary nae of the Llwyryon’s son.
Llyn – “from the lake”.
Llyr – “of the sea”; a Welsh sea and water god, similar to Irish Lir. Listed as father of Bran and Branwen. Lear.
Llywelyn – (lhu-WEL-en) from Welsh llwy “leader, steerer” + eilun “image”. Nicknames Llelo (LHE-loh) and Llew (LHE-oo), which is also Welsh for “lion”.
Lot – king of Orkney and Lothian and husband of Morgause. Lotha.
Lovel – one of Gawain’s illigitimate sons who was killed by Lancelot.
Lug – Welsh version of Luke, “the bringer of light”. Luc.

Mabon – “the son”; name of a mysterious child in the Arthurian sagas; he was stolen from his mother at three days old and imprisoned at Gloucester. His story is told in Culhwch and Olwen.
Mabsant – legendary name of one of Caw’s sons.
Macsen – (MAK-sen) from Latin name Maximus. Maxen Wledig (Lord Maxen) was a 4th C. Spanish-born general who led the remnants of the Roman army out of Britain to claim the emperorship and was briefly successful. Maxen.
Madawg – name of Teithyon’s son in old legends. Madoc.
Maddock – “generous”.
Maddox – “the benefactor’s son”.
Madoc – (MAH-dog) from British mad “fortunate, lucky”. In legend, Madog ap Owain Gwynedd colonized N. America in the late 12th C.
Mael – legendary name of Roycol’s son.
Maelgwn – (MAYL-goon) “prince of the hounds”; from Welsh mael “divine prince” + ci (cwn) “wolf, hound”. Maelgwn Gwynedd was a 6th C. Welsh king.
Maelogan – (may-LOH-gahn) “divine prince”; from Welsh mael “prince” + -on, a divine ending. Maelon – (MAY-lon). Fem. form Maelona (may-LOH-nah) “divine princess”, nickname Lona (LOH-nah).
Maelwys – name of Baeddan’s son in old tales.
Mallolwch – name of the legendary king of Ireland who married Branwen.
Malvern – “bare hill”.
Manawydan – name of sea god Llyr’s son; equal to Irish god Manannan mac Lir. He was a skilled shapeshifter and keppt the Isle of Man and the Isle of Arran under his protection; and broke the enchantment on Dyfed.
March – (MAHRX) from Welsh march “horse”. Name of King Mark in the Welsh version of the Tristan saga, in which he is known as March ap Meirchion (Horse, Son of Horses). The horse was a symbol of kingship in Celtic culture. Mark.
Marrock – a knight who was secretly a werewolf.
Math – (MAHTH) from Celtic math “bear”. According to the Mabinogi, Math ap Mathonwy (MAHTH mahth-ON-oo-ee) was king of N. Wales and a powerful magician; and helped creat a flower-wife for his great-grandson Llew.
Mawrth – Welsh version of Mars, a Roman god of war.
Maxen – variant of Macsen.
Medyr – legendary name of Medyredydd’s son.
Meical – (MAYK-al) Modern Welsh form of Michael. Older form Mihangel (mi-HAHNG-el); nickname Meic (MAYK).
Melkin – a pre-Merlin prophet and poet mentioned in the Annals of Glastonbury Abbey.
Menw – name of Teirwaedd’s son in old tales.
Mercher – Welsh form of Mercury, Roman messenger of the gods.
Meredith – (me-RED-ith) from mawr “great, big” + udd “lord”; other sources give the meaning “guardian from the sea”. It wa also the name of many medieval Welsh princes
Merlin – the great sorcerer of the Arthurian sagas; his father was from the Otherworld, his mother was earthly. Legend says he learned all his magic from Nimue (also known as Morgan, Viviane, Lady of the Lake, and Queen of the Fairies); old legend says he is guardian of the Thirten Treasures of Britain that he locked in a glass tower on Bardsey Island. Welsh tradition says Myrddin still sleeps in a hidden crystal cave. The Welsh name Myrddin means “hawk”.
Meurig – “dark skinned”; Welsh version of Morris or Maurice.
Mil – name of Dugum’s son in old tales.
Modred – name of King Arthur’s son by Morgause, his half-sister. He was raised with his half-brothers, the other children of Morgause and Lot. Arthur killed him at the Battle of Camlan. Mordred.
Moesen – Welsh version of Moses, “from the water”.
Mordwywr – “sailor”.
Morgan – (MOHR-gahn) from Welsh mor “sea” or mawr “great, big” + can “bright” or cant “circle” or geni “born”. Could mean “big circle”, “bright circle”, “bright sea”, or “sea-born”; or “dwells near the sea”. Male or female name. Most famous Morgan is probably Morgan la Fee, King Arthur’s half-sister and famed sorceress. Morcan, Morgant (MOHR-gahnt).
Morgannwg – “from Glamorgan”.
Morthwyl – from a word meaning “hammer”.
Morvran – name of Tegid’s son.
Mostyn – “fortress in a field”.
Myrddin – (MUHR-din or MUHR-thin) from British moridunon “sea fortress”. Welsh source of the name is from the sorcerer Merlin.

Naw – name of Seithved’s son in legends.
Neb – name of one of Caw’s sons.
Nentres – one of eleven kings who revolted against Arthur; he later married Elain and became the King’s ally.
Nerth – name of Cadarn’s son in old tales.
Nerthach – son of Gwawrddur in legend.
Neued – legendary name of Tringad’s father.
Newlin – “dwells near the new pool”.
Nissyen – (NESS-yen) “lover of peace”; brother of Evnissyen and his total opposite in morals and temperament. He was also a half-brother to the god Bran.
Nodens – variant of the sea god Llud Llaw Ereint.
Nynnyaw – legendary name of one of Beli’s sons.

Odgar – name of one of Aedd’s sons.
Ofydd – Welsh version of Ovid, a Roman poet.
Ol – legendary name of Olwydd’s son.
Olwydd – “tracker”.
Oswallt – Welsh version of Oswald, “strength from god”.
Owein – (OH-wayn) from Latin name Eugenius (Eugene) “well- or noble-born”; some sources list it as “young warrior”. Owain.

Padrig – (PAHD-rig) Welsh form of Padraig (Patrick), “noble”, patron saint of Ireland.
Parry – (PAHR-ee) from Welsh ap Harri “son of Harry or Henry”.
Pasgen – (PAHS-gen) from Welsh Pasg “Easter”.
Pawl – (POWL) Welsh form of Paul, “little”.
Pedr – (PEDR) Welsh form of Peter, “rock”. Pedran (PED-rahn), Petran (PET-rahn).
Peissawg – name of a king of Brittany in legends.
Pelles – known as the Wounded King of the Grail Castle after he was wounded through both thighs; his daughter Elaine bore Galahad, Lancelot’s son.
Pellinore – brother of Pelles, King of the Isles, and one of the greatest Knights of the Round Table.
Pellyn – “from the lake’s headland”.
Pembroke – “headland”.
Penn – “from the peak”.
Pennar – (PEN-ahr) from Welsh pen “head” + ardd “hill, height”.
Penvro – “from Pembroke”.
Perceval – name of a Knight of the Round Table. Percival, Parzival.
Peredur – (per-ED-eer) Derivation uncertain, perhaps from Welsh peri “spears” + dur “hard”. Peredur mab Efrawc was the hero of a Welsh Arthurian grail romance.
Powell – “son of Howell”; name of one of the Welsh kings.
Price – “son of Rhys” and “son of the ardent one”.
Pryderi – (pra-DAYR-ee) In the Mabinogi, Pryderi was stolen by a monstrous claw on the night of his birth and deposited in Teyrnon Twrf Fliant’s stable. He renamed the child Gwri Gwallt Euryn (Gwri Golden – Hair) and raised him, until it was clear he was the missing son of Pwyll and Rhiannon. When returned to his mother, her first words were “I would be relieved of my care (pryder) if this were true!” So he was renamed Pryderi.
Prydwen – “handsome”.
Prys – (PREES) from ap Rhys “son of Rhys”. Price.
Puw – Welsh version of Pugh, “son of Hugh”.
Pwyll – “son of Howell”; in ancient legends, he was the lord of Dyfed when he met Arawn, lord of Annwn, and took his place for a year in the Otherworld.
Pyrs – Welsh form of Pierce, “stone” or “rock”.

Reese – “ardent one”.
Ren – “ruler”. Ryn.
Renfrew – dwellls near the still river” or “raven wood”. Rhinfrew.
Rhain – (RHIIN) from Welsh rhain “spear, lance”. Rhainallt (RHIIN-alht) “hill”.
Rheged – legendary name of Gwres’ father.
Rhett – “enthusiastic”.
Rhionganedd – name of a prince of Ireland in old legends.
Rhisiart – (RHISH-art) Welsh form of Richard, “strong ruler”.
Rhobert – Welsh form of Robert, “brilliant, renowned”.
Rhodri – (RHOD-ree) from Welsh rhod “circle” + rhi “ruler”. Rhodri Fawr (Rhodri the Great) was an important 9th C. king He was a renowned warrior, as well as the ancestor of many of the later dynasties of Wales.
Rhun – name of one of Beli’s sons.
Rhuvawn – name of Deorthach’s son in legends.
Rhyawdd – name of Morgant’s son in old tales.
Rhychdir – “from the plow land”.
Rhyd – “from the ford”.
Rhydderch – (RHUHTH-erx) from Welsh rhi “king” + derchafu “ascending”. Rhydderch Hael (Rhydderch the Generous) was a king of the Old North in the 6th C. He fought alongside Urien Rheged and Morcant against the incursions of Anglians into the area that is now southern Scotland.
Rhys – (RHEES) from Welsh rhys “ardor, passion, rash”. Reece, Rice, Reis, Riess, Rhett.
Robat – (ROB-at) Welsh form of Robert. Nickname Robyn (ROB-een). The 15th C. Robyn Ddu (Black Robin) and the 19th C. Robyn Ddu Eryri (Black Robin of Snowdonia) were noted Welsh poets. Robet.
Romney – “dwells near the curving river”. Rumenea.

Sayer – from the word for “carpenter”.
Seith – “seven”. Saith.
Sel – legendary name of Selgi’s son.
Selwyn – (SEL-ween) from Welsh sel “ardor” + gwyn “shining, holy”.
Selyf – Welsh version of Solomon, “peace”.
Selyv – name of Kynan’s son in old legends.
Seren – (SER-en) Welsh word for “star”. Sirona, from the same Celtic root, was an ancient Gaulish goddess of hot springs. Male or female name.
Siam – (SHAM) Welsh form of James.
Siarl – (SHARL) Welsh form of Charles, “manly”.
Siawn -name of Iaen’s son in old tales.
Siencyn – Welsh version of Jenkin, “god is gracious”.
Sinnoch – name of one of Seithved’s sons in tales.
Sion – (SHON) Welsh form of John. Sioni (SHON-ee), Sionyn (SHON-een).
Sior – (SHOR) Welsh form of George, “farmer”.
Steffan – Welsh form of Stephen, “crowned with laurels”.
Sugyn – legendary name of Sugynedydd’s son.
Sulien – (SIL-yen) from Welsh sul “sun” + geni “born”. Originally the name of a Celtic sun god. 11th C. Welsh bishop of St. David’s named Sulien was reputed to have been the most learned man in all Wales.
Sulyen – variant of Sulien; and name of one of Iaen’s sons in old tales.
Syvwlch – legendary name of Cleddyv Kyvwich’s son.

Tad – “father”. Tadd.
Taffy – “beloved”.
Taliesin – (tahl-YES-in) from Welsh tal “forehead, brow” + iesin “radiant, shining”. A 6th C. poet who composed pems in praise of the heroes Owein, Urien Rheged and others.
Tarrant – variant of Taranis, a thunder and storm god, similar to Jupiter. Tarran, Taryn, Taren, Terrant.
Tegid Foel – husband of the goddess Cerridwen, their home was under Lake Tegid.
Tegvan – name of Cerridwen’s son.
Teilo – (TAY-loh) A 6th C. saint who founded a church at Llandeilo Fawr in Dyfed. After his death, a dispute arose between the churces of Llandeilo, Llandaf, and Penally on where Teilo’s remains were to be kept. His body miraculously triplicated so that no one would be left out.
Teithi – name of one of Gwynnan’s sons in old tales.
Teregud – name of one of Iaen’s sons in old stories.
Teryrnon – (TAYR-non) from Celtic tigernonos “divine prince”. In the Mabinogi, Teyrnon Twrf Fliant was Pryderi’s foster father.
Timotheus – Welsh version of Timothy, “honors god”.
Tomos – (TOHM-ohs) Welsh version of Thomas, “twin”. Nickname Twm (TOOM). Twm Sion Cati (1530-1609) was an antiquarian, poet and outlaw, and known as the Welsh Robin Hood.
Tor – natural son of King Pellinore, who was raised by a cowheard. The truth of his ancestry came out when he asked to be a Knight of the Round Table.
Trahern – “incredibly strong” or “strong as iron”.
Trefor – (TREV-ohr) from Welsh tref “home, town” + mor “great”. Name used since the 10th C.
Tremayne – “lives in the house by the rock”. Tremen.
Trent – “dwells near the rapid stream”. Trynt.
Trevelyan – “from Elian’s home”.
Tringad – legendary name of Neued’s son.
Tristan – from an Old Welsh word for “noisy one”; “clamor”. Confused with Tristram; Tristan is mentioned as a Knight of the Round Table in the Arthurian sagas.
Tristram – “sorrowful”. The tragic tale of Tristram (Tristan in Arthurian legend) and Isolde; he was the son of King Meliodas and Queen Elizabeth of Lyonnesse and went to his uncle King Mark in Cornwall after his country sand under the ocean. There, he fell in love with Isolde, his uncle’s wife, and caused a great scandal. He served King Arthur for a time, but went to Brittany where he was mortally wounded.
Tudur – (TID-ir) from Celtic teutorigos “king of the tribe”. Tewdwr ap Giffri was a 10th C. king of Brecon. Tudur Aled was a renowned Welsh poet of the early Tudor era. Tudor (TID-or), Twedwr (tee-OO-door).
Twm – Welsh version of Tom, “gift from god”.
Twrgadarn – “tower of strength”.
Tywysog – “prince”.

Uchdryd – name of Erim’s son in ancient tales.
Urien – traditional name of the king of the land of Gorre who was associated with the Round Table. He married Morgan le Fay, their son was Owain.

Vaddon – “from Bath”.
Vaughn – “small one”. Vychan.

Wadu – name of one of Seithved’s sons in lengends.
Waljan – “chosen”.
Weyland – a god of smiths, said to have made Excalibur. His name is still associated with several sites in Wales and Britain.
Wmffre – (OOM-free) Welsh form of Humphrey, “friend of the Huns”. Wmmffre.
Wren – “ruler”.
Wynn – “handsome”, “fair, white one”, or “light complexion”. Wyn.

Yale – “fertile upland”.
Yestin – Welsh form of Justin.
Ysberin – name of Fflergant’s son in old tales.
Ysgawyn – name of Panon’s son in old tales.
Yspadaden Pencawr – named as the father of Olwen in the story Culhwch and Ol

Coat of Arms Search Monday, Jun 1 2009 

Search for your family coat of arms here:

COAT OF ARMS SEARCH

Please be aware that our search only shows a SMALL PORTION of the last names we have available. So, we may still have your coat of arms available even if our search says it’s not available. If you would like, go ahead and place an order anyways and we will research it. YOU WILL ONLY BE CHARGED IF WE FIND YOUR NAME.

Coat of Arms Symbols Monday, Jun 1 2009 

Coat of Arms Symbols

What do the symbols on your coat of arms mean ??

To be honest, most of the meanings to these symbols have been lost over time.  One family may have added a Swan to their coat of arms to signify their love of poetry, while another family may have had a lot of swans in the family pond.  We do have  list of what most of the coat of arms symbols mean.  However, this list is meant to be a GENERAL guide.  It doesn’t tell you for certain that the Swan on your coat of arms symbolizes a love of poetry for example.

Below is a list of Coat of Arms / Family Crest Symbolisms

Symbolisms of Heraldry

The following symbolisms have been excerpted from W. Cecil Wade’s “The Symbolisms of Heraldry or A Treatise on the Meanings and Derivations of Armorial Bearings”. Published in London in 1898.

Colors and Metals

Or, yellow or gold – Generosity.

Argent, white or silver – Peace and sincerity.

Sable or black – Constancy, sometimes grief.

Azure or blue – Loyalty and truth.

Gules or red – Military fortitude and magnanimity.

Vert or green – Hope, joy and sometimes loyalty in love.

Purpure, purple – Royal majesty, sovereignty and justice.

Tenne or tawney – Worthy ambition.

Murray or sanguine – Not hasty in battle, and yet a victor.

Heraldic Lines

Nebulee or Nebuly – The sea or water.

Engrailed and Invected – Earth or land.

Indented – Fire.

Dancette – Water.

Ragulee or Raguly – Difficulties which have been encountered.

Embattled – Fire or the walls of a fortress or town.

Ordinaries

Chief – Dominion and authority.

Cross – Chevron – Protection.

Fess – Military belt or girdle of honor.

Bar – For “one who sets the bar of conscience, religion and honor against angry passions.

Pale – Military strength and fortitude.

Palet – Same as Pale.

Pile – Same as Pale.

Canton – Bearing of honor. When borne charged, it often contains some special symbols granted by the sovereign in reward for the performance of eminent service.

Quarter – Bearing of honor. Similar to the Canton.

Bend – Defense or protection.

Battune Sinister – Marks a royal descent that is barred by illegitimacy from succession to the throne.

Orle or Tressure – Preservation or protection.

Flasques – Given by a king for virtue and learning, and especially for service in embassage.

Voiders – Given to gentlewomen who have deserved highly.

Bordure or Border – Frequently adopted as a “difference” between relatives bearing the same arms.

Gyron – Unity.

Common Charges

Lion – Deathless courage.

Tiger – Great fierceness and valor when enraged to combat; one whose resentment will be dangerous if aroused.

Bear – Ferocity in the protection of kindred.

Wolf – Denotes valiant captains that do in the end gain their attempts after long sieges and hard enterprises. One whom it is dangerous to assail or thwart.

Rhinoceros – Great ferocity when aroused.

Elephant – Courage and strength.

Heraldic Tiger – Same as Tiger.

Leopard – Valiant and hardy warrior.

Panther – As a lion may be said to signify a brave man, so may a panther a beautiful woman, which, though fierce, is very tender and loving to her young, and will defend it with the hazard of her life.

Horse – Readiness for all employments for king and country.

Bull or Ox – Valor and magnanimity.

Boar – A fierce combatant when at bay, and ceases fighting only with its life, and therefore may be properly applied as the armorial bearing of a warrior.

Goat – Emblem of that martial man who wins a victory by the employment rather of policy than valor.

Lamb – Gentleness and patience under suffering.

Ram – Authority.

Hares and Rabbits – One who enjoys a peaceable and retired life.

Squirrel – Sylvan retirement being the delight of its bearer.

Hedgehog – Provident provider.

Beaver – Industry and perseverance.

Fox – One who will use all that he may posses of sagacity, wit or wisdom in his own defense.

Talbot, Mastiff and Greyhound – Courage, vigilancy and loyal fidelity.

Cat or Cat-A-Mountain – Liberty, vigilance, forecast and courage.

Camel – Docility, patience and indefatigable perseverance.

Bee – Well-governed industry.

Ant – Symbolizes a man of great labor, wisdom and providence.

Spider – Wisdom, labor and providence in all affairs.

Grasshopper – Wisdom and nobility.

House Snail – Deliberation and perseverance.

Double Eagle and Eagle – Signifies a man of action, ever more occupied in high and weighty affairs, and one of lofty spirit, ingenious, speedy in apprehension and judicious in matters of ambiguity.

Alerion – Signifies one who having been maimed and lamed in war, was thus prevented from fully asserting his power.

Wings – Celebrity, sometimes protection or coverture.

Feathers (usually ostrich) – Willing obedience and serenity.

Falcon or Hawk – One eager or hot in the pursuit of an object much desired.

Hawks or Falcons Bells – One who feared not to signal his approach in either peace or war.

Owl – One who is vigilant and of acute wit.

Peacock – Beauty and pride of carriage.

Pelican – Devoted and self-sacrificing charity.

Stork – Filial duty, emblem of a grateful man.

Swan – A lover of poetry and harmony.

Goose and Duck – A man of many resources.

Gannet – To subsist by the wings of his virtue and merit, having little land to rest upon.

Swallow – One who is prompt and ready in the dispatch of his business.

Cock – Courage, always ready for battle, ready to fight to the death.

Dove – Loving constancy and peace.

Raven – One who, having derived little from his ancestors, has through Providence become the architect of his own fortunes or one of an enduring constancy of nature.

Crow – Signifies a settled habitation and a quiet life.

Dolphin – Charity and a kind affection towards children.

Tortoise – Invulnerability to attack.

Unicorn – Extreme courage.

Griffin – Sets forth the property of a valorous soldier whose magnanimity is such that he will dare all dangers, and even death itself, rather than become captive.

Dragon – A most valiant defender of treasure.

Cockatrice – Terror to all beholders.

Sphinx – Omniscience and secrecy.

Pegasus – Exceeding activity and energy of mind whereby one may mount to honour.

Harpy – Ferocity under provocation.

Mermaid – Eloquence.

Centuar – For those who have been eminent in the field.

Hydra – The conquest of a very powerful enemy.

Phoenix – Resurrection.

Stag, Hart, Buck and Deer – Policy, Peace and Harmony.

Horns and Antlers – Strength and Fortitude.

Escallop Shell – One who has made long journeys or voyages to far countries, who had borne considerable naval command or who had gained great victories.

Other Shells – Protection of Providence.

Heart – Charity, sincerity.

Flaming Heart – Ardent affection.

Hand – Faith, sincerity and justice.

Red Hand – Usual mark for a baronet if borne on a small escutcheon.

Arm – A laborious and industrious person.

Gauntlet – Signify a man armed for the performance of martial enterprise.

Leg – Strength, stability and expedition.

Shoe – Same as Leg.

Foot – Same as leg.

Human Head – Honor.

Blackamoor Head – Deeds of prowess in the Crusades.

Skulls – Mortality.

Crossed Thigh-bones – Mortality.

Eye – Providence in Government.

Millstones – The mutual converse of human society.

Sceptre – Justice.

Trident – Maritime dominion.

Crown – Royal or seigniorial authority.

Celestial Crown – Heavenly reward.

Pastoral Crosier – The emblem of a shepherd’s watchfulness over his flock, and denotes episcopal jurisdiction and authority.

Annulet or Finger Ring – Fidelity.

Lozenge – Honesty and constancy, also held to be a token of noble birth.

Billets – Their first bearer was a man who obtained credence, knowledge and faith in his words and deeds, and who was secret in his affairs.

Pen – Emblematic of the liberal art of writing and of learned employments.

Inkhorn – Same as pen.

Harp – Contemplation.

Lyre – Same as harp.

Scythe – Hope of a fruitful harvest of things hoped for.

Sickle – Same as Scythe.

Anchor – Succor in extremity and the Christian symbol of hope.

Ship, Lumphiad or Galley – All such symbols would point to some notable expedition by sea, by which, perhaps, the first bearers had become famous.

Cubes, squares or dice – Constancy, wisdom, verity probity, and equity.

Lozenge – Same as Cubes.

Axe — Execution of military duty.

Purse – A frank and liberal steward of the blessings that God has bestowed .

Tower or Castle – Grandeur and solidity. Sometimes granted to one who has held one for his king, or who has captured one by force or stratagem.

Bridge – Signifies a governor or magistrate.

Pillar or Column – Fortitude and constancy.

Snake – Wisdom.

Scaling Ladder – One who was fearless in attacking.

Crosses – Symbolic of some Christian experience or sentiment.

Trestles and stools – Hospitality.

Cushions – Marks of authority.

Angels, Cherubs and Seraphs – Dignity, glory and honor.

Estoiles – Emblems of God’s goodness or of some eminence in the first bearer above the ruder sort of men.

Mullet – Denotes some Divine quality bestowed from above.

Gold Spur – Dignity of knighthood.

Silver Spur – An esquire.

Sun – Glory and splendor.

Crescent – Signifies one who has been enlightened and honored by the gracious aspect of his sovereign.

Moon – Serene power over mundane actions.

Fire – Zeal.

Lightning – The effecting of some weighty business with great clarity and force.

Rocks – Safety, refuge and protection.

Portcullis – Effectual protection in emergency.

Hunting Horn – One who is fond of high pursuits.

Trumpet – Ready for the fray.

Cannon, Mortars, Cannon Balls and Grenades – Well bestowed on those who have dared their terrors in sieges and battles.

Sword – Indicates the bearer to a just and generous pursuit of honor and virtue in warlike deeds.

Arrows and Arrowheads – Martial readiness.

Spear or Lance – Knightly service and devotion to honor.

Spear Heads or Pheons – Dexterity and nimbleness of wit to penetrate and understand matters of highest consequence.

Shield – A defender.

Saddles, Stirrups and Spurs – Preparedness for active service.

Horse Shoe – Good luck.

Trunk of a Tree – An object of veneration.

Fusil – Travel and labour.

Shacklebolt – Victory in war.

Water Bougets – Conferred on those who had brought water to an army or besieged place.

Catharine Wheel – Emblem of one who is prepared to undergo great trials for the Christian faith.

Escarbuncle – Supremacy.

Buckles – Victorious fidelity in authority.

Clarion or Rest – Same as Trumpet.

Beacons or Cressets – One who is watchful for the commonwealth or who gave the signal in time of danger.

Chains – A reward for acceptable or weighty service.

Fusil of Yarn – Negotiation.

Fret – Persuasion

Gold Roundles – One who has been found worthy of trust and treasure.

White Roundles – Generosity.

Wheel – Fortune.

Cornucopia – Bounty of Nature’s gifts.

Chaplets and Wreaths – Granted for special service.

Coat of Arms Rings Thursday, May 28 2009 

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Coat of Arms Terms for the Lettter ‘C’ Friday, Oct 31 2008 

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Heraldry Terms with the letter ‘C’

 

Cabled, (fr. cablé): 1. of a cross with a cable pattern, i.e. of twisted rope; 2. of an anchor, &c., having a rope cable.

TRYE.

WENTWORTH. Caboshed, Cabossed, or Caboched, otherwise Trunked(old fr. caboche): terms applied to the heads of beasts, when borne full-faced and with no part of the neck being visible, so that it appears like the marks of a head. An example will be seen above, under bull, also under leopard: in the case of leopards’ heads, however, as the word is not found used, it does not appear to be necessary. The term rencontre supplies the nearest equivalent in French heraldry; thus arms here figured would be blazoned in French rencontre de cerf.

Argent, a buck’s head caboshed gules, attired or–TRYE, Glouc. Sable, a chevron between three leopard’s heads or–WENTWORTH. Argent, in chief, sable three leopard’s heads or–NORMAN.

Cabré(fr.) is applied by French heralds to a horse which, brought to a check, is rearing(but not so much as acculé). Cadency, marks of, otherwise called Distinctions, or Differences(fr. brisures): variations of the original arms of a family, or marks attached to them for the purpose of pointing out the several branches, and the relation in which they stand to each other and to their common ancestor. In ancient heraldry “a plain Label” (as Sir N. H. Nicolas remarks), “most frequently azure, appear to have been the distinction of the eldest son and heir apparent;” as, for instance, at the Siege of Caerlaverock, Maurice de BERKELEY, who joined in the expedition, is described as having over his arms(gules, crusilly with a white chevron) a label azure, because his father was still alive:

“E. Morices de Berkelée, Croissillie o un chievron blanc, Ki compaigns fu de cele alée, Ou un label de asur avoit, Banier ot vermeille cum sanc, Por ce que ses peres vivoit.”

And again, one bore his arms in no manner different from his father[the Earl of Lennox] except the azure label:

“Cele au Conte de Laonois …. Ne la portoit par nul aconte Patrik de Dunbar, fiz le Conte Fors de une label de inde diverse.”

It also appears “that younger sons bore the label variously charged, sometimes with the whole or part of their mother’s arms, or the arms of a distinguished family from which they were descended; that more distant branches changed the colours, or charges, of the coat; placed a bend over it; surrounded it with a bordure, or assumed a canton, plain or charged.” Although the charge of tinctures, and the addition, removal, or alteration of charges are very frequently marks of cadency, it must not be supposed that all families of the same name, and between whose arms there is some resemblance, are descended from the same ancestors, for the arms of ancient families have often been very unjustly granted with slight alteration to persons whose relation to such families consisted only in similarity of name. The differences now in use may be divided into two classes; those used by the royal family, and those which should be borne by all others. The sons and daughters of the sovereign all bear labels of three points argent. That of the Prince of Wales is plain, but those of the other princes and princesses are charged with crosses, fleur-de-lis, hearts, or other figures for the sake of distinction. Princes and princesses, being the sons and daughters of the above, are distinguished by labels of five points charged in the same manner. All such differences should be borne on the arms, crest, and supporters. The differences now in use for all families except that of the sovereign may be partially traced to the time of Edward III. They are as follows:–

FIRST HOUSE. First son. A label of 3 points. Fourth son. A martlet. Second son. A crescent. Fifth son. An annulet. Third son. A mullet. Sixth son. A fleur-de-lis.

Some heralds pretend that the seventh son was marked by a rose, the eighth by a cross moline, and ninth by eightfoil; but this theory does not seem to be borne out in practice. This first son of the first son of the first house bears a label upon a label(or more agreeably to ancient custom a label of five points). The second a label charged with a crescent, and so on for all other sons of this branch.

SECOND HOUSE. First son. A crescent charged with label of three points. Second son. A crescent charged with a crescent.

And so on for the rest, but it is not usual to bear more than double differences. There are no differences for sisters(except in the royal family), as they are all equal, but they should bear the differences which pertain to their fathers. Crescents, mullets, &c., used as differences, should be drawn smaller than usual, to distinguish them from ordinary charges. They may be placed upon any part of the arms which is most convenient. There does not appear to be any rule respecting their tinctures.

Sire Johan FILOL, de veer a un quarter de goules. Sire Johan son filz meisme les armes en le quarter un molet de or–Roll, temp. ED. II.

Caduceus, (fr. caducée): the rod of Mercury, with wings attached, and two snakes round it. Used chiefly as a crest.

Per saltire or and erminois, on a saltire azure between a caduceus in chief and a pine-apple in base proper, two swords in saltire argent, pomels and hilts gold–BARROW, Bath.

Calamine stone. See Metal. Calf. See Bull.

Caltrap. Caltrap, written also Calthrop, and Galtrap, and by French heralds Chausse-trap, is an abbreviated form of Cheval-trap: in instrument thrown upon the ground to injure feet of horses, consisting of four iron spikes, one of which is ever uppermost.

Argent, three cheval-traps sable–TRAP, Glouc. Azure, a cross between four caltraps or–WESTFALING, Bp. of Hereford, 1586-1603. Vert, on a lion rampant or caltraps sable–LIGHTORLES.

Calvary. See Cross of. Camel: the camel is borne but on few arms. Several branches of the CAMMEL family bear it.

Argent, a chevron between three camels sable–CAMMEL. Azure, a camel statant argent–CAMELL. Argent, a camel passing through a ford of water proper–CAMELFORD. Also borne by the following:–FALLOWERS, Cheshire; FALWITZ, Alderley; CLOVES, Wilts; WHEELER, Surrey; WILKIE of St.Vincent[a camel’s head]; STUTOILE[Ibid].

Cameleon. Cameleon, or Chameleon: the proper tincture is green, and it is drawn as in the margin.

Argent, a chevron sable between three cameleons vert–LANDON. Azure, in chief a sun or, in base a chameleon on sandy ground proper–ORY. Sable, three chameleons erect or, within a bordure argent charged with eight martlets sable–WORTHAM.

Camelopardel: the camelopard, or giraffe, with two long horns slightly curved backward, used only as a crest. Campaned: having bells attached. Canary. See Finch.

Candlestick. Candlestick, (fr. chandelier). The taper-candlestick, borne in the arms of the FOUNDERS’ Company, and usually drawn as represented in the annexed engraving, has a spike, or, as it is technically termed, a picket, upon which the taper is placed. Vide also Mortcour, which is used at funerals.

Or, three candlesticks sable–KYLE, Scotland. Azure, two candlesticks[? chalices] in fesse or–EMERLE. Ermine, three candlesticks, each enfiled with a wreath of laurel, and in chief … –TORRENS. …. A book expanded having a candlestick with a lighted candle in it above the book, on the leaves the words ‘Lucerna pedibus,’ &c.–College of S.Mary, MANCHESTER.

Cannelé, (fr.) invected. Cannet. See Duck. Cannon. See Bell, also Gun. Canting Arms(sometimes called allusive or punning arms, and by French heralds, armes parlantes) are very generally distributed. They are arms containing charges which are allusive to the name of the bearer. A few examples are annexed.

CASTILE. Gules, a castle triple towered or, and argent, a lion rampant gules(sometimes purpure, and often crowned or), quarterly–The kingdom of CASTILE and LEON. Sable, six swallows(fr. hirondelles), 3, 2, 1, argent–ARUNDEL, Wardour, Wilts. Barry of six, argent and gules–BARRY, Ireland. Gules, three covered cups or–BUTLER. [This family was originally named FITZWALTER, and bore Or, a chief indented azure, but one of them being appointed to the office of lord Butler of Ireland, they took the surname of BUTLER at the same time as their arms.] Argent, three eagles displayed gules–EGLESFIELD, Cumb. (Founder of Queen’s College, Oxford, 1340). Argent, three eels naiant in pale sable–ELLIS, Norf. Crest, a holy lamb–EVANS, Wales. [This is an allusion to S.John the Baptist; Evan being the Welsh form of the Christian name John.] Gules, on a chevron between three ostrich feathers argent, a pellet(or gun-stone)–FETHERSTON, Herts. Argent, on a mount in base vert, a hart lodged gules–HARTHILL. Crest, a talbot’s head couped argent, collared sable, to the collar a ring of the first–HAYWARD, Surrey. [This is a specimen of heraldic allusions of a more recondite character, the reference being to the Saxon haganpeapd. a house-dog.] Or, three boots(hosen) sable–HUSSEY. Azure, a cross moline or–MOLINEUX, Hawkley, Lanc. Gules, a fesse between four dexter hands couped argent–QUATREMAYNE, Oxfordsh. Azure, even acorns, 2, 3, 2, or–SEVENOKE(Lord Mayor of London, 1418). Argent, a stork sable, beaked and membered gules–STARKEY, Chesh. Azure, two trumpets pileways, between eight cross crosslets, 3, 3, 2, or–TRUMPINGTON, Cambr. (Sir Roger de Trumpington, ob. 1289).

Many even of early coats of arms allude, in some way or other, to the names of their bearer, and perhaps more than is commonly suspected would be found to be so, if we could always recover the early chance names given to the charges of which they are composed.

Geoffrey de LUCY, de goules a trois lucies d’or–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Nicholas de MOELES, d’argent a deux barres de goules, a trois molets en le chief de goules–Ibid. Thomas CORBETT, d’or deux carbeaux noir–Ibid. Roger de MERLEY, barree d’argent et de goulz, a la bordur d’azure, et merlots d’or en la bordur–Ibid. Odinel HERON d’azur a trois herons d’argent–Ibid.

Arms parlantes do not often occur of later date than King James I., about which time they began to grow into disrepute from ignorance and misapplication, and were nick-named canting or punning arms. They were numerous at all preceding periods, not only in England, but throughout Christendom. Canton, (fr. canton, but also franc quartier appears to be often used in this sense): resembles a first quarter of the shield in form, but of smaller dimensions; its size does not appear to be fixed, but is generally about one-third of the chief. In old French cauntel, (i.e.) canton, is used for Quarter, q.v. When the word is used alone, a dexter canton is intended; it may, however, be placed upon the sinister side, if so blazoned, and when with a bend. Cantons in base occur upon foreign arms, but it is believed are never used in English armory.

SUTTON. The canton is sometimes the only charge in a coat; but generally it is supposed to be an augmentation of the original arms, or a difference.

Argent, a canton sable–Oliver SUTTON, Bp. of Lincoln, 1280-99; Charles SUTTON, Bp. of Norwich, 1792, and Abp. of Canterbury, 1805-28; [also SUTTON, Baron Lexington, 1645, and other families of that name]. Argent, fretty gules, a canton gules–IREBY, Cumberland. Gul. LONGESPE, dazur, a sis liuncels dor–Soun frer au tel a une cauntel dermine–Roll, temp. HEN. III.

Where there is a bordure the canton always surmounts it, and when borne upon a coat consisting of there charges(2 and 1) it generally covers the whole or greater part of the first. If more than three it generally covers the whole of one, if not of more. In very exceptional cases, however(and then the arrangement must be duly described), the canton itself is partially covered by some ordinary(e.g. a bend). It is often charged with another bearing, though generally plain, and the most frequent tincture is ermine, which rather tends to bear out a theory that its origin was suggested by some badge of honour placed upon the shoulder of the warrior.

MARLBOROUGH.

KIRBY[?]. Sable, a lion rampant argent, on a canton of the last a cross gules(i.e. a canton of S.George)–CHURCHILL, Duke of Marlborough. [Arms of Earl of Marlborough, 1689.] Gules, on a bordure sable eight estoiles or; on a canton ermine a lion rampant of the second; in fesse point an annulet of the third for difference–S.John BAPTIST’S College, Oxford[founded by Sir Thomas WHITE, 1557]. Or, three lioncels passant sable langued gules; on a canton of the second three bezants–GODWIN, Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1584-90. Monsire Philip le DESPENCER, port barre d’or et d’asur de vj peeces, a une quarter d’ermin–Roll, temp. ED. III. Azure, six lions rampant argent; on a canton or a mullet gules–KIRBY, Kent. [The arms engraved are from Haseley Church, and perhaps are those of LONGESPEE, Earl of Salisbury, with the canton for a difference.] Sire Walter TOUX de sable, billeté de or e un quarter de ermyn–Roll, temp. ED. II. Sire Rauf de ZEFOUL, d’argent, a une croys patee de verd; e en le cauntel un oysel de goulys–Roll, temp. ED. II.

WOODVILLE.

PYPARD. A canton and fesse of the same tincture, as in the arms of WOODVILLE, should join, without even a line to part them. The same remark will apply to the uppermost of two or more bars, when occurring with a canton; but this is not so with a bend. When a canton and chief occur on the same coat the canton overlies it.

Argent, a fesse and canton gules–WOODVILLE. Argent, two bars azure on a canton of the second a cinquefoil or–PYPARD. [From glass formerly at Haseley.] Ernaud de BOYS, argent, deux barres et ung canton goulez–Roll of Arms, temp. HEN. III. Barry of six argent and azure, a chief ermine and a canton of the first–HOTHAM. [In some branches of the family a canton or.] Barry wavy of six argent and sable, a chief gules and a canton ermine–BARLOW, Derby. Barry of six argent and sable; a canton quarterly or and argent–BELSTED, Norfolk. Barry of five argent and gules, a canton as the last; over all a bend sable–Sire Johan du BOYS, Roll of Arms, 1308-14; M. Roger le BOYS, Roll of Arms, 1392-97.

Cantoned. A cross or saltire between four charges is sometimes said to be cantonnée, or cantoned with such charges. A fesse joined to a canton is also sometimes called a fesse cantoned. Cap: the principal caps in use as charges, parts of crests, or accessories to coats of arms, are the following:

Lord Mayor’s Cap. The Lord Mayor’s cap usually placed over the insignia of the city of London, or arms of a lord mayor, is thus represented. It is worn by the sword-bearer, and is of brown fur.

MAUNDEFELD.

CAPPER. The caps borne by MAUNDEFELD are of a peculiar form, similar to that of the ‘Doge’s’ cap. Those borne by DROKENSFORD, and called pilia pastoralia(if caps at all), were possibly similar.

Quarterly, azure and or four caps counterchanged–DROKENSFORD.

The family of CAPPER bear caps, like the figure annexed.

Argent, three caps sable bended or–CAPPER, Cheshire.

Cardinal’s Cap. A Cardinal’s cap or hat is always red, and has tassels pendent from its labels in five rows, instituted by Innocent IV., at the Council of Lyons, 1245. The continental archbishops and bishops(especially those of France) bear green hats of the same form over their mitres, the former with five rows of tassels, and the latter with four. A black caps of the same shape, with three rows of tassels, belongs to abbats. Prothonotaries use a similar hat with two rows of tassels. A black hat or cap, with one tassel on each side, belongs to all other clergymen.

Cap of Maintenance. Cap of Dignity or maintenance, called also Chapeau, is a cap generally of red velvet turned up with ermine, formerly peculiar to dukes(whence it is sometimes called a duciper), but now often used to place crests upon instead of a wreath.

Argent, three chapeaus sable(or cap of maintenance)–HALWORTH. The cap of maintenance occurs as a charge in the insignia of the city of GLOUCESTER, and on the seals of Towns of WALLINGFORD and STAINES.

The term chapeau, however, is variously used for a cap or hat of any kind. In the arms of COPE it is probably a cap of maintenance; it that of KINGESTON it is probably a hat of some kind.

Quarterly ermine and azure, a chapeau gules turned up of the first between two greyhounds courant in pale or–COPE, Osbaston, Leicester. Argent, a chapeau azure[elsewhere a steel cap proper], with a plume of ostrich feathers in front gules–John KINGESTON, 1390.

The doctor’s cap in the arms of SUGAR refers probably to the University degree.

Sable, three sugar-loaves argent, in chief a doctor’s cap proper–SUGAR, Somerset.

Long Cap. The long Cap, of a peculiar shape, which occurs in the crests of WALPOLE and BRYDGES, is shewn in the margin, and a cap somewhat similar is termed an Albanian bonnet, probably that worn by the peasantry.

Azure, trois bonnets Albanois d’or–VAUX, France.

The Abacot, a mere corruption of bycocket, is said in Spelman’s Glossary to have been given to a cap worn by ancient kings of England, and is so copied into heraldic books. The Infula is used in one case in the sense of a cap.

Argent, an infula embowed at the end gules, turned up in form of a hat, and engrailed with a button and tassel at the top or–BRUNT.

Burgonet. Caps of Steel: of these there are various kinds, and they cannot properly be included under the term helmet. The first in the Basinet(fr.), or Basnet, properly a plain circular helmet resembling a basin, though sometimes they are drawn(improperly) like squires’ helmets. The Burgonet is a steel cap, worn chiefly by foot-soldiers, and of the shape shewn in the margin.

Morion.

Morion. There is also the Morion(fr. chapeau de fer), which was worn by foot-soldiers, and is usually of the plain shape annexed, but it may be ornamented. In many ancient examples the points of these morions are turned to the dexter. A somewhat different morion is given on the crest of CECIL, Marquis of Salisbury.

Argent, a chevron gules between three basnets proper–BASNET. Argent, a fesse azure between three burgonettes[elsewhere morions] of the second garnished and nailed or–EVINGTON, Enfield, 1614. Argent, a chevron gules between three morions proper–BRUDENEL, Earl of Cardigan.

Caps(fr. chaperons) are also used for Falcons, q.v. Caparison, or housing(old fr. barde): the embroidered covering of a horse, which was often charged with the arms of the knight to whom the horse belonged, as on the seal of Edward CROUCHBACK, Earl of Lancaster. The horse represented upon his monument, and that of Aymer DE VALENCE, both in Westminster Abbey, are examples of the practice. The horses upon the great seals of King Edward I. and many of his successors are caparisoned with the royal arms. All animals embroidered upon the housing of a horse should face his head. The same they be said of all charges which are different on each side; thus a bend upon the right side of the caparison of a horse would appear as a bend sinister. Capital. See Gateway and Pillar. Capon. See Cock. Cappeline. See Mantling and Tent. Carbuncle. See Escarbuncle. Card for wool. See Woolcard. Cards: playing cards are used in the arms of the company.

Gules, on a cross argent between in chief the aces of hearts and diamonds, but in base the aces of clubs and spades proper, a lion passant guardant–Company of CARDMAKERS.

Careering, (fr. cabré): a term applied to a horse in a position which would be called salient if a beast of prey were spoken of. Carnation: (1) improperly used for flesh-colour, as no such tincture is recognised in heraldry(but frequent with French heralds); (2) a flower. The pink is also found.

Argent, three carnations gules, stalked and leaved vert–NOYCE. Azure, on a bend or within a bordure argent two pinks, slipped proper–WADE. Pinks are also borne by families of EDSIR(Surrey), of MARLOW, and of LEVINGSTON, and by SKEVINGTON, Bp. of Bangor, 1510-33.

Carp. See Mogul, fish of. Carpenter’s square. See Square. Carreau, (fr.) (1) a quarrel, a kind of arrow; (2) a square charge like a block or delf. Carter fish. See Turbot. Cartouche: an oval escutcheon used by Italian ecclesiastics. Cartwheel. See Wheel. Casque. See Helmet.

CASTILE. Castle, (fr. chateau): the word castle used alone generally signifies either a single Tower, q.v. or two towers with a gate between them. A castle triple-towered is represented in the ensign of the kingdom of CASTILE, and is frequently found quartered in the arms of Queen Eleanor. The illustration is from glass still existing in Dorchester Church, Oxon.

Argent, a lion rampant sable, quartering gules, a castle triple-towered or–CASTILE and LEON. Gules, three castles triple-towered within the royal tressure argent–Burgh of ABERDEEN. Sable, a castle triple-towered or–TOWERS, Bp. of Peterborough, 1639-49.

Amongst other varieties which occur, are triangular and quadrangular castles; castles seen in perspective, and castles extending quite across the field. Castles are also described as domed, turreted(fr. donjonné), embattled, breached, &c., and it is not uncommon to describe in detail towers, gates, loopholes, windows, vanes, portcullises, and the like. Where the masonry is shewn by the addition of lines the term masoned is used. The windows and doors are sometimes represented as of a different tincture, and then are supposed to be closed; and the same if they are of that of the castle itself; but if of the tincture of the field they are supposed to be open, and the term ajouré might be used. Coulissé signifies that the portcullis is down.

Sable, two bars between three castles masoned or–CLEAVER, Bp. of Chester, 1788; of Bangor, 1800; and S.Asaph, 1806-15. Gules, a castle towered and domed argent, masoned sable; on the dome a flag–Town of BARNSTAPLE, Devon. Sable, a castle with towers turreted in perspective argent standing in water wavy azure and argent–CASTLEFORD. Per fesse azure and argent; in base on a rock a castle breached, the Indian colours struck and flag-staff proper; in chief two eagles rising or–STIBBERT, London(1768). Argent, a castle(or tower) triple-towered sable, chained transverse the port or–OLDCASTLE, Kent. Per fesse vert and gules, in base a lion passant guardant on; in chief a quadrangle of castles walled argent–Town of LANCASTER. Argent, on a rock proper a castle triple-towered and embattled sable, masoned of the first, and topped with three vanes gules, windows and portcullis shut of the last–City of EDINBURGH.

Sometimes the terms Fort, Fortress, Citadel, &c., are used. The Castle, too, may be surrounded with a fortification.

Argent, on a fesse azure, between two Cornish Choughs proper in chief, and in base a lion passant gules crowned or, a fort of the field–GARSTON. Vert, on a chevron embattled … &c.; a chief charged with the gates and fortress of Seringapatam proper–HARRIS, Baron Harris, 1815. Per chevron azure and argent …. and on a chief silver the fortress of Khelat; a canton charged with the Dooranee badge–WILTSHIRE, 1840. Per chevron vert and argent; on a chevron or between, in chief two castles of the second, in base another surrounded by a fortification proper, three torteaux–GREEN, Kent, Baronetcy, 1786.

In connection with the Castle the Barbican(that is to say the advanced work) is described in some insignia, and the projecting turrets overhanging the embattled wall, called Bartizans, in others. Other additions are occasionally named, e.g. a trench, or the castle, may be standing in water or surrounded by a wall.

Gules, two barbican of a castle having loopholes, gate, and portcullis, with two pointed side tower; on each of the latter a pennon waving argent, and ensigned on the centre of the battlement by a royal coronet or–Town of DONCASTER. Gules, out of water in base, on embattled wall enclosing a castle with three gables from the embattled parapet, a piece of tapestry hung along the front between the bartizans and displaying three shields[shields described] … Town of NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYNE.

JANE SEYMOUR. The badge of Jane Seymour, third queen of Henry VIII., blazoned upon a grant of lands made to her in 1536, presents a good example of a castle. The tincture are as follows:–

The walls argent, the ground vert, the tree of the same fructed gules, the phœnix or, in flames proper, and the roses alternately white and red.

Castles occur rarely in the old rolls of arms.

Monsire de GRANSON pale d’argent et d’azure de vi. piéces, a chastelez d’or en une bend gules–Roll, temp. ED. III.

The Castle is borne very frequently in the insignia of cities and towns, with other charges; of these insignia, however, the evidence is often only derived from the seal. The following may be named, but the list might probably be extended.

ABERDEEN; BARNSTAPLE; BEDFORD; BERKHAMSTEAD, (Hertford); BISHOPS CASTLE, (Salop); BOSNEY, (Cornwall); BRIDPORT; BRIDGEWATER, (Somerset), BRIDGENORTH, (Salop); BRISTOL; CARDIGAN; CARLISLE; CARMARTHEN; CLITHERO, (Lancashire); CORFE, (Dorset); DENBIGH; DEVIZES; DONCASTER; DORCHESTER, (Dorset); DUBLIN; DUNBAR; EDINBURGH; EXETER; FORFAR, (Scotland); GUILDFORD, (Surrey); HAVERFORDWEST; KINGHORN, (Scotland); KNARESBOROUGH; LANCASTER; LAUNCESTON, (Cornwall), LINCOLN, LUDGERSHALL; MALMESBURY; NEWBURY; NEWCASTLE under Lyne; NEWCASTLE under Tyne, (three); NORTHAMPTON; NORWICH; ORFORD; PEMBROKE; PLYMOUTH; PONTEFRACT; QUEENBORO’; SAFFRON WALDEN; STAFFORD; TAUNTON; TEWKESBURY; THETFORD; TIVERTON; WARWICK; WINCHESTER(five); WORCESTER; YARMOUTH, (Hants).

KEATE. Cat, (fr. chat): occurs not infrequently. Probably the wild-cat is generally intended, thought the special reference to the Cat-a-mountain in several arms seems to imply a distinction. A spotted cat is also referred to. Cats are found blazoned most frequently passant, but also rampant, salient, statant, and couchant. With French heralds the term effarouché is used to signify the cat when rampant(as if scared), and herissonée with ‘the back up.’ The wild-cat is supposed always to be represented guardant, although it be not stated in the blazoning. Musion, a fanciful name for a cat, is used by BOSSEWELL. A cat’s head is also found on one coat.

Argent, two cats passant gules–CATT. Gules, two cats passant guardant argent–CATTON. Per fesse azure and vert, in chief a cat argent couchant, coward; in base a pierced cinquefoil of the last–CATHARNE, Pembroke. Vert, a cat statant, tail erect argent, within an orle of eight trefoils slipped or–VAGHAN. Argent, three mountain-cats passant in pale sable–KEATE, Herts. Per pale sable and gules, a mountain-cat between three roses argent–LIMPENIE. Sable, on a fesse argent, between three mountain-cats or, a cross formy of the field–HILL, Berks. Sable, a chevron ermine, between three spotted cats passant argent–HARTHORP, London.

Cat-a-mountain. Cats are also borne by the families of CHIVAS, Aberdeen; DUANE, London; ADAMS, Northampton; TIBBETT; LIPPINGCOTE, Devon, GIBBS, Dorset; and KEATS, Dover. Azure, a cat’s head erased argent, between eight crosses crosslet of the second, 3, 2, 2, and 1–TOLDERREY, Kent.

The crest of the Duke of Sutherland is a cat-a-mountain sejant guardant proper: and two wild-cats are the supporters to the arms of FARQUHARSON of Invercauld; while the lezard, a beast somewhat resembling the wild-cat, is the dexter supporter of the SKINNERS’ and MUSCOVY Merchants’ Companies, as well as the crest of the former. Caterfoil=quatrefoil. Cathedral. See Church. Catherine Wheel. See Wheel. Caudé, (fr.): of tails of comets when of a different tincture. Cauldron: in found only in connection with the children in the cauldron. See example under Bishop. Cautel, or Cauntel(old fr.), found also spelt cantel and chantel: appears to be generally a corner at the Sinister chief point of the shield, but superseded in modern heraldry by the canton. See Quarter. Cave: this singular charge occurs in one coat of arms.

Gules, a cave proper, therefrom issuant a wolf at full speed regardant argent–WILLIAMS.

Cedar. See Pine-tree. Censer, (fr. encensoir): no example having been found in English arms the following French example is given.

D’or, à l’encensoir d’azur–LAMBERT, Limousin.

Centaur. See Satyr. Centre-point: the fesse-point. See Points of the escutcheon. Cercelé. See recercelé and Cross cercelée. Cerclé, (fr.): encircled, e.g. of a Tun or barrel. Cercle, (fr.): a large voided circle, only used in French arms. Chabot. See Perch. Chafant, (fr.): enraged, and is applied to the wild boar. Chaffinch. See Finch. Chain, (fr. chaine): (1) a series of annulets(q.v.) when interlaced are commonly called a chain, and are borne as distinct charges, as in the insignia of the kingdom of NAVARRE.

Gules, a cross and saltire of chains, affixed to an annulet in the fesse-point, and to a double orle of the same, all or–NAVARRE, taken after the battle of Tolosa, 1212. Argent, three circles of chains sable–Hoo. Argent, a chain of nine links in saltire, five gules and four azure–HATCHET. Azure, a chain couped in chevron between three mitres all argent; at the dexter end of the chain a padlock of the last–EVESHAM Benedictine Abbey. Gules, a chain of seven links in pale argent–KENDALL. Sable, three chains each of four links palewise argent–ANDERTON, co. Lancaster.

(2) Chains are also often fixed to the collars of animals and to other charges, e.g. to a portcullis, an anchor, &c., and are frequently of a different tincture from the charge, and the term chained is used either when two animals are chained together, or when a chain is attached to the collar of a single animal.

Argent, two barbels haurient, respecting each other, sable, collared and chained together or; the chain pendent and ringed at the end–COLSTON, Essex. Gules, a stag statant argent collared and chained or–BOIS, co. Brecknock.

Chain-shot. See Shot. Chair: this is used in one case in a singular manner.

Or, out of a chair resembling a mural coronet reversed argent a demi-lion rampant sable–TALSTOCK.

Chalice. Chalice: generally drawn in old examples as in the margin, though often with an octangular foot.

Azure, a sun in splendour, in base a chalice or; [otherwise a chalice or and in chief a sun]–VASSALL. Azure, two chalices in fesse or[elsewhere blazoned candlesticks]–EMERLE.

Chamber-piece. See Gun. Chameleon. See Cameleon. Chamfrain, (old fr.): signifying the armour-plates which cover the head of a horse. Champagne: rarely and irregularly used for the lower part of the shield generally, i.e. the ‘ground.’ See Point. Champaine, (1) Champaine(corrupted by some writers to Champion), otherwise urdé and warriated: is an embattled line, but with the top and bottom of each division pointed instead of square, and so resembling somewhat the line usually drawn in vair. It occurs, though rarely, as a line of partition.

Champaine. Purpure, a bend champaine argent–ARCHBY, Argent, a pale champaine vert–BOWMAN. Bendy of six champaine purple and argent–BOWBRIDGE. Gyronny of four champaine or, enarched argent and gules–BRAUNECK.

(2) The term Point Champaine, or Champion(q.v.) also is used. It is included in the forms of Abatement. Champion. See Champaine. Chape. See Sword. Chapeau. See Cap. See also Chapeaux under chaplet. Chapel. See Church. Chaperonne, Chapourn, or Shafferoon: (1) a name given to the small shields containing crests, initials, death’s heads, &c., placed upon the heads of horses, either with or without a hood, at pompous funerals; (2) Chaperonné, or chapourné, appears also to be used to signify hooded, being applied to falcons, &c.

BOUTREN.

DE BRESSY. Chapé: a partition of the shield used by French heralds, and found by two lines drawn from the centre of the upper edge of the shield, diverging towards the flanks, and leaving the field resembling somewhat a wide pile reversed; the tincture is applied to the two portions thus parted off. Chaussé is similar to Chapé, but with the lines diverging from the base towards the two corners, and leaving the field resembling an expanded pile. The line may be curved, and the partition is then blazoned chaussé arrondi, &c.

De gueules, chapé d’argent–BOUTREN de Franqueville, Normandie. Ecartelé d’argent, et de gueules, chapé de l’un en l’autre–DE MONTBAR, Bourgogne. De gueules, chaussé d’hermines–DE BRESSY de Sablous, Normandie.

Chaplet.

Crown Triumphal. Chaplet, (old fr. chapelet, pl. chapeus): is, when not otherwise described, a garland of leaves with four flowers amongst them, at equal distances. It is to be distinguished from the wreath(q.v.), and though usually composed of leaves will be found blazoned of various tinctures.

Sire Rauf LE FITZ WILLIAM, burele de argent e de azure, a iij chapels[in Falkirk roll ‘chapeus’] de goules–Roll, temp. ED. II. Party per fesse, argent and azure, three chaplets counterchanged–DUKE. Sable, three chaplets argent–JODRELL, Stafford. Sable, three chaplets gyronny argent and gules–DYRWARD.

It is more usual, however, to designate the material of which the chaplet is composed. It may be of roses(and this, perhaps, is the most frequent) or of flowers generally, or it may be of leaves, and often of laurel leaves. In the latter case it is termed a crown triumphal.

Monsire William PLAICE, port d’asur, au chief d’argent deux chapeaux des roses vermals–Roll, temp. ED. III. Monsire de HILTON de Haderness, port d’argent, a trois chepeletts de roses vermaux–Ibid. [Chaplets of roses are also borne by the families of SAXTON; DEAN; FAULDER; GREYSTOCK; FITZRALPH; LASCELLES, and others.] Argent, on a chevron sable, between three chaplets of flowers gules, another chevron ermine–BOROUGH. Argent, a lion rampant azure, holding in his dexter paw a chaplet of laurel vert, in chief a scroll sable, thereon the word “Emmanuel” or–EMMANUEL COLL., Cambridge. Or, two bars azure, on a canton argent a chaplet of laurel proper–HOLME. Argent, a garland of laurel vert, between three pheons gules–CONQUEROR, Frierton. [Chaplets of laurels are also borne by the families of PELLEW; KEATS, Dover; NIGHTINGALL, Norfolk.]

Rarer instances occur of chaplets of holly, or of hazel, or of brambles, while the single instance of the chaplet of rue is a name sometimes given to the crown of rue(q.v.) which occurs in the arms given by Frederick of Barbarossa to the Duke of SAXONY.

Argent, a fesse engrailed humetty sable, between three chaplets of holly leaves proper–Nicholas BUBBEWYTH, Bp. of Salisbury, Bath and Wells, 1408-24. Gules, on a chevron argent, between, in chief three chaplets of hazel or, and in base a plough proper, three shakeforks sable–PEER, Hazelwood, Devon. Argent, a lion rampant gules encircled by a wreath of brambles proper–DUSILVA, Portugal.

Civic Crown. When the material is oak the device is often blazoned as a wreath, and there is especially a ‘wreath of oak acorned’ which bears the name of the ‘Civic wreath,’ or the Civic Crown. It is supposed to represent the Roman crown conferred upon public benefactors, especially upon those who had saved the life of a citizen. The leaves should be represented tied together by a ribbon. The Ducal Coronet(q.v. under Crown) had originally oak leaves, but strawberry-leaves have been substituted.

Argent, a chevron gules; in base an oak wreath vert, tied azure; on a chief of the second, three mascles of the first–PELLEW, Cornwall, [1796]. Azure, on a fesse, between three garbs or, a wreath of oak vert between two estoiles gules–SANDBACH, Lancaster. [Chaplets of oak also borne by the families of STUDD, Ipswich; DICKSON, Norfolk; LLOYD, Sussex; MURRAY, Mexico, and others.] Gules, a lion passant guardant, and in chief two civic wreaths or, a chief wavy, charged with a ship of war before Algiers proper–PELLEW. Argent, a civic crown or wreath of oak acorned proper, on a chief azure a serpent nowed or, and a dove of the field respecting each other–SUTTON, Norfolk.

The Crown obsidional is also mentioned in old works on heraldry, which is a chaplet graminy, i.e. composed of twisted grass, and is fancifully said to have been bestowed upon any general who had held a city against a besieging force.

Gules, an eagle displayed argent armed or; on a canton of the second a chaplet graminy vert–GOODALL, Suffolk[granted Mar. 1, 1612].

The term garland as well as wreath, it will be observed, is used sometimes instead of chaplet. Chapourne. See Chaperonne. Charboucle. See Escarboucle. Charge, (fr. meuble, but more accurately meuble d’armoirie, or meuble de l’ecu): anything borne on a coat of arms, whether upon the field, as was more usually the case in ancient arms, or upon on ordinary, or indeed upon another charge. The position of a charge, unless occupying the centre of the field, i.e. the fesse-point, has to be stated. (See under the article blazon.) The great variety of the charges which have been adopted in Coats of arms, will be seen by the Synoptical view given in the Appendix, and this by no means contains all the minor varieties, nor all the extraordinary objects chosen in more recent times. The contrast between recent arms and the more simple bearings of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries is very marked. Charged with, (fr. chargé), signifies having a charge thereon. Charity: the representation of charity is thus blazoned from a seal.

A figure of Charity with one child in her arms, and three others standing near her naked; on the dexter side a shield hung on a tree, with the cross of S.Andrew on it, to which the figure is pointing; on the sinister side of the escutcheon a thistle issuing from the ground in base, stalked and leaved; over it a regal crown–The SCOTS CORPORATION[Incorporated 1665].

Chart: This device seems to be used in a solitary instance.

Per chevron wavy, azure and erminois, a chart of Chesterfield’s Inlet, between in chief two estoiles argent and in base on a mount vert a beaver passant proper–CHRISTOPHER, London.

Chased. See under Thunderbolt. Chastel: written sometimes for Castle. Chataignier, (fr.): the Chestnuttree, but not noted in any English arms. Châtelé, (fr.): by French heralds signifies charged with castles(e.g. the bordure of the royal arms of Portugal is so blazoned. Chaudière, or Chaudron, (fr.): a cauldron, in French arms, but rarely. Chausé. See Chapé. Chausse-trap. See Caltrap.

WARREN. Chequy, Checky, Checquer-bearing, (fr. échiqueté, old fr. eschequeré): terms applied to a field or charge divided by perpendicular and horizontal lines, into small squares of metal and colour alternately. There should be at least twenty squares in the shield. If less, the number is named(as in the shield of TOLEDO, where there are 15). When only 9, with the French heralds the terms equipollé is applied. This pattern is said by some to be derived from the game of chess, which if not originally introduced into Europe by the Crusaders was certainly revived by them. Others, however, with greater probably derived it from the Steward’s or ‘chequer’ board. In the Exchequer of the kingdom, and the Chancellor of that department, the word is still retained; and the ‘Checkers,’ a frequent sign of small inns, with the board painted in squares on the outside, still hands down the tradition of the account board. It is not, however, impossible that this board gave the name to the game of chess played upon it. While the number of pieces in the field must be, as already said, as least twenty, a fesse or other ordinary when blazoned chequy must contain three rows of squares, for if there be but one, the ordinary will be compony, and if but two, counter-compony. At the same time the field may have but two rows in chief of a fesse, for so the arms of Lord Clifford are represented in the glass windows at Dorchester, Hasely, &c. When a bend, chevron, or saltire is checquy, the square are not placed perpendicularly, but slanting in the direction of the ordinary.

CLIFFORD. Roger de CLIFFORD escheque d’or et d’azur ove ung fesse de goulz–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Le Conte de GARENNE[i.e. Warren] escheque d’or et d’azur–Ibid. Rauf le BOTELLIER de goules a ung fesse escheque d’argent et de sable et croiseletts d’or–Ibid. Or, a fesse chequy argent and azure–STEWARD, Scotland. Chequy of nine pieces or and azure–GENEVA. Chequy of twelve, sable and argent–ST.BARBE, Somerset.

At the same time there are some peculiar forms which may be noted.

Chequy in perspective argent and sable–PROSPECT. Chequy of lines palewise and chevronwise gules and or–SPOTWORTH.

Cherry: both the tree and the fruit of the tree are found in armorial bearings. The fr. crequier(q.v.) also is sometimes referred to as the wild cherry-tree. The griotte also occurs.

Argent, a cherry-tree fructed proper–ESTOWER. Argent, three cherry-trees, 2 and 1 vert fructed gules, each on a mount of the second–SHRUBSOLE, Canterbury. Argent, a saltire sable between four cherries gules slipped vert–SERGEAUX. … on a chevron between three martlets … as many cherries stalked; in chief three annulets … –CHERITON, Bp. of Bangor, 1436-47. The charge is also borne by the families of MESSARNEY and THORNTON.

CHALONER. Cherub, or Cherub’s head(fr. cherubin): this is drawn as the head of an infant between a pair of wings.

Argent, a chevron dancetty, between three cherubs gules–ADYER, Kent. Azure, a fesse dancetty between three cherub’s heads argent–ADNEY. Sable, a chevron between three cherubim or–CHALONER, Yorksh. Azure, a fesse dancetty between three cherubim’s heads or, faces argent–ADY, Kent.

Chess-rooks. Chess-rook, (old fr. rok): the figure called ‘rook’ in the game of chess, from the Italian rocca, a tower or castle. The chess-rook is an ancient bearing, and of frequent occurrence. It is also in the arms of ZULEISTEIN termed a zule, and this is borne on an escutcheon surtout by the Earls of ROCHFORD.

Sire Richard de WALSINGHAM,–de goules a iij roks de argent–Roll, temp. ED. II. Gules, three chess-rooks ermine–Simon le FITZ SYMON, Roll, temp. ED. I., Harl. MS. 6137. Or, three chess-rooks gules–COLVILL. Azure, a fesse between three chess-rooks or–BODENHAM, Hereford. Gules, three zules argent; a label of three points of the last–ZULEISTEIN.

The charge is also borne by the families of MARSHALL, AOLUITE, OGILVIE, and ORROCK. Cheval-trap. See Caltrap. Chevalier, (fr.): a man in complete Armour, q.v. Chever. See Goat. Cheverons: old term for ‘party per chevron.’ Chevillé, (fr.)=attired, is used of the stags’ horns, when they have five or any greater number or branches. The word ramé(fr.) is also used, and appears to be synonymous.

TYES.

FITZWALTER. Chevron, (fr. chevron, old fr. cheveron): an ordinary occupying one-fifth of the field. The origin and meaning of this term has afforded ground for many guesses, but in diversifying the forms which bars across the shield may take, that of the chevron is a very natural one. The name itself is derived directly from the fr. chevron, i.e. rafter of a roof. It is found in the earliest of the Rolls of Arms, and is one of the most frequently employed of the Ordinaries. At the siege of Caerlaverock, for instance(A.D. 1300), Henry le TYES had a banner argent, or, as the poet writes, ‘whiter than a brightened lily,’ with a chevron gules in the midst. And at the same siege, Robert FITZWALTER, “who well knew of arms the business,” on a yellow banner had a fesse between two red chevrons. Both of these arms are to be seen in stained glass in Dorchester Church, Oxon, in a window which was probably nearly contemporary with the siege, and perhaps recording the benefactors to the Church.

Baniere ot Henris li TYOIS Plus blanche de un poli lyois O un chievron vermeil en mi.

O lui Robert le FIZ WATER Ke ben sout des armes le mester … En la baner jaune avoit Fesse entre deus cheverons vermaus.

It has two diminutives, the chevronel, which is half its width(more or less), and the couple-close, which is half the chevronel.

Moris de BARKELE,–goules ung cheveron d’argent–Roll, temp. HEN. III. Le Conte de WARREWIK,–chequy d’or et d’azur, a ung cheveron d’ermyn–Ibid.

A chevron is subjected to the same kind of variation in respect of outline as the bend, that is, it may be engrailed, indented, embattled, counter-embattled, dauncetty, wavy, raguly, fimbriated, &c.

Azure, a chevron embattled ermine–REYNOLDS, co. Leicester. Azure, a chevron dauncetty or–HAMELL, co. Buckingham, and HAMILTON, co. Gloucester. Argent, a chevron ermine fimbriated sable, between annulets gules–CLUTTON.

In one early roll two chevrons appear to be blazoned as a chevron gemel.

Sire William de HOTOT,–de azure, a iij cressanz de argent e un cheveron de or–Roll, temp. ED. II. Sire Johan de HOTOT,–meisme les armes, le cheveron gymile–Ibid.

It may be party as to tincture, compony or even quarterly, and, on the other hand, it may be voided, that is, the field may be made visible through it, leaving merely a narrow outline.

Argent, a chevron per pale or and gules–WESTON. Argent, a chevron quarterly sable and gules–HONYWOOD, Kent. Ermine, a chevron compony gules and argent–HILL.

DUDLEY. Further, the chevron may be charged with other devices of various kinds, and amongst these is especially to be noted the surmounting of one chevron by another. In the arms of STEER it will be observed that we have two different blazonings for the same arms, one describing the chevron as voided, the other as one chevron on another. And in the case of the arms of STALEY we have a further complication, since this chevron may be blazoned in two different ways, either as a chevron engrailed surmounted by a chevron plain, or as a plain chevron fimbriated. Precisely similar arms, as regards outline, are those of DUDLEY, which are blazoned as voided. It seems to be a case where authority can be found for either system of blazon, and it is difficult to say which is best.

STALEY.

THROCKMORTON. Argent, a chevron voided gules–STEER, Ireland. Argent, on a chevron gules another of the first–STEER. Azure, a chevron engrailed, voided or–DUDLEY, Berks and Bucks. Argent, on a chevron engrailed azure another plain sable–STALEY. [Or as it is elsewhere blazoned–Argent, a plain chevron sable, fimbriated and engrailed azure–STALEY.] Gules, on a chevron argent three bars gemells sable–THROCKMORTON. Gules, on a chevron argent …. bars nebuly sable–HANKFORD. Or, on a chevron engrailed azure bars wavy argent–BROWNE. Or, on a chevron gules bars sable–Lewis PROUDE, Charterhouse, 1619.

A chevron may be enhanced, that is, borne higher up on the escutcheon(no instance has been observed in which it is abased), and it may be reversed, that is, it may have its point downwards, like a pile, or it may be combined with a pile, but such variations are of rare occurrence. It is also sometimes found couped, that is, not extending to the edge of the escutcheon, or with the apex terminated by some other charge, when it may be said to be ensigned of such a charge.

Gules, a chevron enhanced argent–CARLYON. Argent, a chevron reversed gules–GRENDON. Ermine, a chevron couped sable–HUNTLEY; also JONES, 1730. Ermine, a chevron couped gules–AMOCK. Argent, a chevron embattled and ensigned on the top with a banner between in chief two estoiles, and in base a sun gules–EUENE. Argent, a chevron supporting on its point a cross patty sable–TRENEREEK. Sable, a chevron ending in the middle point with a plain de lis argent–KEY. Argent, a chevron, the top ending with a cross patty sable–FINDON; Harl. MS. 1386. Argent, a chevron sable and pile counterchanged–ATWELL, co. York; Harl. MS. 1465.

Chevron couched. Chevron couched: one which springs from one of the sides of the escutcheon. It should be mentioned whether it is dexter or sinister.

Or, a chevron couched dexter gules–TOURNEY. Or, a chevron couched dexter azure–DOUBLET. Argent, two chevrons, couched(and counterpointed?) vert–COUCHMASTER. Purpure, a chevron couched sinister or–BIGHTINE.

HOLBEAME.

ARCHEVER. Chevron inarched. Of this form there are two varieties, as shewn in the margin, found in modern heraldic designs, but probably no ancient authority for the form exists.

Argent, a chevron inarched sable–HOLBEAME, Lincoln. Purpure, a chevron inarched argent–ARCHEVER, Scotland.

A Chevron arched(fr. courbé), resembles a semi-circular arch across the field. It only occurs in foreign arms, and is to be distinguished from the arched fesse by the curve being somewhat more decided. For Chevrons interlaced, see Angles. Besides the above there are various forms of broken chevrons. But the terms do not appear very distinctly defined by heralds, and the actual examples are but few. We find the terms fracted, disjoint, bruised, or debruised(fr. brisé), and rompu or downset, the last term, to all appearance, being a barbarism derived from the French dauncet, which would be equivalent to dancetty.

Broken chevron, fig.1.

Broken chevron, fig.2.

Broken chevron, fig.3. Argent, a chevron debruised between three crosses botonny fitchy sable–BARDOLPH, Stafford. Argent, a chevron debruised sable, between three cross-crosslets fitchée of the last–GREENWAY[Glover’s Ordinary]. Per pale argent and sable, a chevron bruised at the top, and in base a crescent counterchanged–ALEXANDER, Kinlassie. …. a chevron debruised by a fesse charged with a crescent, all between three annulets …. HEDLEY, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Azure, a chevron disjoint or broken in the head or–BROKMALE. Per fesse gules and sable, a chevron rompu counterchanged–ALLEN, Sheriff of London, 18¡¬deg; Jac. I. Or, a chevron rompu between three mullets sable–SALT, Yorks.

In the margin are given illustrations of one or two forms found in books, but no ancient examples have been observed. With the French engravers the chevron brisé is generally drawn in a similar manner to fig. 1, though the two portions are often still further apart, so as not to touch at all. Rompu and failli seem to be used by them when the sides of the chevron are broken into one or more pieces. In chevron would be applied to charges arranged chevronwise. Per chevron. See Party. Chevronelly, i.q. Chevronny. See at end of Chevron. Chevronny, (fr. chevronné): is used when the field is divided into an even number of equal portions chevronwise. Chevronelly appears to be used more correctly.

Chevronelly of four, argent and gules–WHITHORSE. Chevronelly of five, argent and gules, over all a lion rampant sable–WINTHORP, Suffolk. Chevronelly of six, gules and argent–CHALKHILL, Middlesex. Chevronelly of seven, or and gules, over all a lion rampant of the last–HASARD, Essex.

CLARE. Chevronel: a diminutive of the chevron, of which it is nominally one half the width; the term being used properly when there is more than one chevron. With the older writers, however, the term chevron is used, and so may still be used when there are two or even three chevrons.

Or, three chevronels gules.–CLARE. Or, three chevronels per pale, the first azure and gules, the second gules and azure, the third as the first.–WALTER DE MERTON, Bp. of Rochester, 1274-77, and founder of Merton College. Argent, two chevronels sable, between three roses gules, barbed and seeded proper.–William of WYKEHAM, Bp. of Winchester, 1367-1404. [Founder of the College of S.Mary at Winchester and at Oxford.]

TRENOWITH. Other ordinaries may be charged with the chevronel, while it in its turn is subjected to the same varieties as the chevron; though, of course, but rarely such varieties occur.

Argent, on a fesse sable, three chevronels couched sinister of the field.–TRENOWITH, Corn.

Chevronels are sometimes interlaced, or braced, and under the latter term an illustration will be found. See also Couple-close. Cheyne: old fr. for Acorn.

LUMLEY. Chief, (fr. chef): the first of the Ordinaries, and occupying about one-third one the shield from the top downward. The fillet is by some considered its diminutive, while others hold that it can have none. Some English heraldic books, and most foreign, speak of instances of two chiefs, one abased below the other in the same coat, but no English examples are ever adduced. A chief is frequently charged with other bearings, and it may be nebuly, wavy, indented, dancetty, engrailed, embattled, bevilly, &c., but it is only the lower side which is subjected to these variations.

Robert de MORTEYN BRETON, d’ermyn a la cheif de goules. Roll, temp. HEN. III. Rauf le FITZ RANDOLF d’or ung cheif endente d’azur.–Ibid. Sire William DABETOOT, de ermyne od le chef bende de or e de sable. Roll, temp. ED. II. Or, a chief gules–LUMLEY, Essex. Paly of six, argent and sable; a chief wavy azure–BURMAN. Argent, gouty de poix; a chief nebuly gules–ROYDENHALL. Argent, a chief dancetty azure–GLANVILE, Earl of Suffolk.

A chief may also be party per pale, per bend, &c., or even quarterly. When divided by a horizontal line the expression per chief is more accurate than per fesse.

Abp. PECKHAM. Ermine, a chief quarterly gules and or–PECKHAM. [Abp. Cant. 1219-92]. Quarterly; first and fourth argent, a cross bottonnee gules; second and third gules, three suns in splendour or; over all on a chief party per pale gules and argent, three cinquefoils counterchanged–John CHRISTOPHERSON, Bp. of Chichester, 1557-58. Barry wavy of six, argent and azure; a chief per pale ermine and gules–BARLOWE, Derbyshire. Barry of six, gules and or per pale counterchanged; a chief, the dexter side per bend as the first and second, the sinister, per bend sinister like the second and first; over all an escutcheon argent–HAGELEY. Chequy gules and azure; a chief per chevron wavy of the first and or–Sir Nicholas HAUBERKES. [From Glover’s Ordinary.] Chequy azure and or; a chief per chief nebuly of the first and second–TAVESTOKE. [Ibid.]

CAREY. The chief does not, as a rule, surmount other charges, and consequently such have often to be abased. The bend, for instance, starts from the dexter corner just beneath the chief. When associated with a bordure(unless there is direct statement to the contrary) the bordure would be turned and continued beneath the base line of the chief.

Gules, a chief dancetty argent within a bordure azure–BARET[or BARRATT, Sheriff of London, 1379.] Argent, on a bend sable, three roses of the first; on chief gules three crosses patty or–CAREY, Bp. of Exeter, 1820, afterwards Bp. of S.Asaph, 1830-46.

Fillet. It is contended by some writers that the chief has a diminutive, and to a figure as shewn in the margin is given the name of fillet. French heralds, however, blazon this as chef retrait, the word filet being used for a diminutive of the cotice. The word combel is also given by some English heraldic writers as meaning the same thing. It is said that the fillet does not occur at all in English arms, but perhaps the following example may be cited–

Argent, two bars and a canton gules; over all a fillet sable–BOIS or DEBOYS, 1315, Ingham Church, Norfolk.

In Chief is a term frequently used when the charges are to be placed upon the upper part of the escutcheon, and differently from their ordinary position, There are also three points(q.v.) in the escutcheon connected with the chief, viz. the dexter chief point, middle chief point, and sinister chief point. Chieftain. See Head. Child: Children, bays and infants are represented on armorial bearings as early as the sixteenth century, and in a great variety of ways. Perhaps some of the oldest are those where the eagle snatches away the child from its cradle, which occurs in different families, and is variously depicted in the arms of the branches of the same family. Of course such arms are readily associated with tradition, but it is scarcely within the scope of a ‘glossary’ to discuss them. More frequently, however, the children’s heads(q.v.) alone occur.

Argent, an eagle sable, crined gules, standing on a child proper, swathed or lying in a cradle vert–COULCHIEFE. Azure, an eagle preyant sable upon a child swaddled gules–CULCHETH, Lancaster. Argent, a tree eradicated sable; on it a nest of the first, in which is a child proper, swaddled gules, seized on by an eagle volant of the second.–RISLEY.

The three children in a tub or vessel are generally referred to the miracle of S.Nicolas, who restored them after they had been murdered and salted down for food; and in the insignia of the SEE OF ABERDEEN the Bishop is represented as praying over them. (See under Bishop.) Some curious legend must account for the origin of the following.

Sable, a goat argent, attired or, standing on a child proper, swaddled gules, and feeding on a tree vert–DAVIES, Hope, Co. Montgomery.

To another, (probably that of W. de ALBINI) is due the arms of Richard BARNES, Bishop of Carlisle, in which a naked child, front faced, is represented in one instance as holding in both hands the tongue of a bear. The following is one blazon.

BARNES. Azure, on a bend argent, between two estoiles or, a bear passant sable, semie des estoiles of the third, ready to devour a naked child of the fourth; on a chief of the second, three roses gules radiated with rays of the sun proper–Richard BARNES, Bp. of Carlisle, 1570; Bp. of Durham, 1577-87.

Other blazoning of these arms is found.

Azure, a bend argent between two estoiles or, a bear passant sable estoiled or, seizing a man proper; on a chief azure three roses gules radiated or–BARNES. Azure, on a bend argent, between two estoiles or, a naked boy, front faced, holding in both hands proper sable the tongue of a bear statant of the last estoiled gold, a chief as the second charged with three roses gules radiated like the third.–BARNES[the arms confirmed 1571, Harl. MS. 5847].

The FOUNDLING HOSPITAL in London has for its insignia:

Per fesse azure and vert; in chief a crescent argent between two mullets of six points or; in base an infant exposed and stretching out its arms for help proper. Motto, ‘Help.’

Chimera. See Sphinx. China Cokar. See Palm.

Chisel. Chisel: this occurs variously in different branches of the family of CHESSELDEN. It also occurs in the crest of the Company of MARBLERS drawn as in the margin.

Argent, a chevron sable between three chisels or handled of the second–CHESELDON, Harl. MS. 1386. An arm embowed vested azure cuffed argent, holding in the hand proper an engraving chisel of the last–Crest of the MARBLERS’ Company.

Chough. See Cornish Chough. Chub, (leuciscus cephalus): this fish, common to England and belonging to the order cyprinidœ, seems only to have been chosen for the sake of the punning name, since it is only borne by the family of CHOBBE.

Vert, three chub fish haurient sable–CHOBB. Gules, on a chevron between three chub fish argent three shovellers sable; on a chief dancetty of the second three escallops of the first–CHOBBE[and one of the quarterings borne by Lord DORMER, of Wing, Bucks].

Seal of Lord DE LA ROCHE. Together with the above must be classed the roach(leuciscus rutilus, fr. rosse). The most authentic instance of a delineation of this charge is perhaps found on Lord de la Roche’s seal.

Gules, three roach naiant in pale argent–Seal of Thomas Lord DE LA ROCHE affixed to the Barons’ letter to Pope Boniface VIII., 1301.

Again it is represented on the seal to Thomas Arundel, Abp. of Canterbury, 1397-1414, where the shield bearing the fish(which are supposed to be roach) is represented as borne by one of the four murderers of Thomas à Becket, though what connection they had with the Roche family is not known. It may perhaps be noted that the application of this charge to the name of the family is a singular instance of the punning adopted in heraldic devices, for the remains of Roche Castle, founded by Adam de la Roche, still exist on an insulated rock(fr. roche) of great height, and it has been suggested that the proverb ‘sound as a roach’ has its origin in the same confusion of the French and English language. The roach is found borne differently by different descendants of the family, e.g.

Gules, three roach naiant or within a bordure engrailed argent–Sir David ROCHE of Carass, Limerick. Sable, three roach naiant in pale argent–De La ROCHE, Herefordshire. Azure, three roach naiant argent within a bordure or–Walter ROCHE of Bromham, Wilts. Gules, three roach naiant in pale argent–Peter de RUPIBUS[or Sir Pierre des ROCHES], Bp. of Winchester, 1206-38, Or, a bull passant gules between three roach haurient proper, a chief chequy or and azure–Sir William ROCHE, Lord Mayor of London, 1540. Argent, on a bend sable three roach of the field–HUYSHE, Devonshire. Gules, a chevron engrailed between three roach naiant argent; on a chief of the second three herons sable, billed and membered gules–HOBBS, Middlesex.

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